Bible versus Quran: 1000+ Differences & Contradictions

 

The Bible: Its Divergences from the Quran and Islam

Exodus  (2. Mos)

 


The 5 Books of Moses are often called "the Law" or "the Torah". It is unclear by whom and when they are written. Minor parts of it may be from Moses - the original "Book of Covenance" was written down by Moses according to the Bible (2. Mos. 24/4-7), and later incorporated in these books, but the rest is younger. Moses according to science lived around 1300 - 1200 BC (if Moses was 80 (2. Mos. 7/7) around 1235 BC and became 120 years old (5. Mos. 34/7), this means he lived from ca. 1315 to ca. 1195 BC), but science believe that but for what is taken from "the Book of Covenance", the oldest parts of the "Books of Moses" are from around 800 or at least not older than 950 BC. The youngest parts may be as young as from around 400 BC. (We may add that the myth you often meet from Muslims that Ezra had to rewrite the Books of Moses in or after Babylon - and used the chance to falsify them - is just that: A myth. It is well possible that the copy of the books in the Temple and even all copies in Jerusalem were burnt by Nebuchadnezzar when he sacked the city in 586 BC, but there existed many more copies inside and outside Judah (the southern kingdom - roughly what is now the land around Jerusalem in Israel.) - far too many for that it could be possible for Ezra to falsify the old book without being found out - - - and besides there is not a word in the Bible about Ezra doing such writing.)

001 One central point in the books of Moses: The ways of addressing and celebrating and praying to and worshipping the god is marked different in the Bible compared to the Quran - one more proof for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god (if they had been, their demands about this had been more or less similar).

The same goes for the different kinds of offerings - the offerings the two gods wishes, and the conditions concerning the offerings, to a large degree are very different - another proof for that the two gods are not the same one.

002 2. Mos. 1/11: "- - - they (the Israelites - now slaves*) built Pithom and Ramses as store cities for Pharaoh". Which shows the slave period was not over all too early (even though one does not know exactly when those cities were built) - and Moses and Exodus came at the end of that period. Islam wants the period in Egypt to have been short, so as to the Exodus would have happened under early pharaohs, whose cause of death we do not know, and who thus can have drowned. Also another string of claims you may meet: That the Jewish patriarchs lived some 200 - 250 years earlier (and then also Joseph earlier), and that thus everything happened earlier - and consequently also Exodus happened earlier and under a pharaoh who perhaps drowned - the Quran clearly stated that Allah drowned the pharaoh, and we know the relevant pharaoh, Ramses II did not drown (the same goes for his successor, Merneptah - there is a slight possibility for that it happened under him - - - if it happened). But science is very clear: During the reign of Ramses II or perhaps - perhaps - a few years later (during the reign of the next pharaoh, Merneptah) - this instead of Muslims' wish for that it should have happened much earlier.

003 2. Mos. 1/22: "Then Pharaoh gave this order to all his people: 'Every (Jewish*) boy that is born you must throw into the Nile - - -". This is the reason why Moses was put in a basket made watertight by tar and pitch and set adrift on the Nile. In the Quran this order from the Pharaoh comes as a result of his quarrel with Moses 80+ years later, and no logical reason for why Moses was put on the Nile is given (f.x. 20/37-40), except that it was Allah*s order (and also contradicted by the Bible on this point, as it tells that the involved god was Yahweh, not Allah).

004 2. Mos. 2/5: "Then Pharaoh's daughter went down to the Nile (and found Moses*) - - -". In the Quran the woman is not the daughter of the pharaoh, but his wife (28/9). She - the wife of the pharaoh - even wants to adopt him as a son (28/9). (How likely is it that a mighty pharaoh would adopt a slave baby for a son? - and even a slave baby from such an inferior group of people, that when Joseph earlier invited his brothers for food in his home, they had to be served at a separate table from the Egyptians (1. Mos. 43/32) because it was detestable for the Egyptians to eat together with them. This even more so as Ramses II had plenty of sons - the number is unclear, but perhaps 67 (his successor, Merneptah, likely was his son number 13).

005 2. Mos. 2/23: "During that long period (Moses lived 40 years in Midian (see Jud. 6/1 below), according to the Bible*) the king of Egypt died - - -". This is not mentioned in the Quran, and what also definitely is not mentioned there, is that the pharaoh who succeeded him, according to science, was Ramses II, a pharaoh well known in history. Muslims dearly would like it to have been someone else, because among all the things we know about Ramses II, is that he did not drown and that he died several years after the Exodus (if exodus ever happened, it happened ca. 1235 BC according to most scientists). Because of this you meet claims from Islam that it happened centuries earlier - as early as around 1500 BC or even around 1600 BC. But science is pretty nearly unanimous: Around 1235 = during the reign of Ramses II (or according to some scientists perhaps his successor Merneptah - but in that case the Exodus was a bit later than 1235, as this pharaoh reigned from 1213 BC to 1203 BC, and not much earlier like Islam likes to claim to be able to find a pharaoh one does not know how died, and thus one who may have drowned). The reason why Islam wants it to have happened much earlier, is simple: They need it to have happened under a pharaoh who may have drowned - if not there is one more big mistake in the Quran.

006 2. Mos. 3/1a: "- - - Jethro - - -". This was Moses' father-in-law (for some reason he is named Reuel in 2. Mos. 2/18 - it may be a title). You will meet Muslims claiming he was identical to one of the claimed old Arab prophets, Shu'ayb (the last one of the 3 named claimed Arab prophets in the Quran). This is not possible because of the time factor (Shu'ayb is said to be a descendant of Abraham - the 4. generation - and in case he is not just a fiction, he thus lived far too early compared to Moses, as there are at least 500 years between Abraham and Moses according both to the Bible and to science. This also is admitted by Islamic scholars commenting the mentioned claim (YA - Yusuf Ali - comment 1054).

007 2. Mos. 3/1b: (Moses came to*) "Horeb, the mountain of Yahweh - - -". In the Quran he came to "the sacred valley of Tuwa" (20/12) by the "Mount Tur" (28/29).

008 2. Mos. 3/3: "So Moses thought, 'I will go over and see this strange sight - why the bush does not burn up'". In the Quran he went to find some information (what information is it likely to find in a burning bush?) or a firebrand so that he and his family could warm themselves (in spite of that it was well known at that time how to make a fire, and at least in daytime there is no need to warm oneself in a hot desert).

009 2. Mos. 3/1-16: The meeting between Yahweh and Moses by the burning bush is roughly described in the same way in the Bible and the Quran - except the Quran claims the god was Allah - but the details differ a lot. From where did Muhammad get the details of his story?

#010 2. Mos. 3/7: "The Lord (Yahweh*) said - - -". All places in the Bible it is made clear that it is Yahweh who makes things happen, and not other gods like f.x. Allah. This is so obvious that we comment on it just a few times.

###011 2. Mos. 3/10: "I (Yahweh*) am sending you (Moses*) to Pharaoh (Ramses II*) to bring my people the Israelites out of Egypt". This was what Yahweh instructed him to do. In the Quran Muhammad intertwine it with religion, but the instruction was plain and prosaic and without any religious aspect according to the Bible: "Let my people go". There nowhere in the Bible is indicated that Moses had any other instruction - on the contrary just this instruction is repeated in 2. Mos. several times.

012 2. Mos. 3/14: The god speaking to Moses here names himself "I am" (in Hebrew the word "Lord" sounds like "I am"). In the Quran he names himself "Allah" (28/30). You will find that the Quran some places is overly clear.

013 2. Mos. 3/18: "The Lord, the God of the Hebrews - - -". The Quran says "I am Allah, the Lord of the Worlds (plural and wrong - there are no 7 worlds like the Quran claims*) - - -". There is a distinction here, though the difference does not have to be as large as it seems, because even if Yahweh was the god of the Hebrews, he also could be the god of the rest of the world - which many points in the Bible confirms he was, even in OT. But the difference in the texts - from where did Muhammad get his texts, as no god delivered texts as filled with errors like in the Quran?

014 2. Mos. 3/21: "And I (Yahweh*) will make the Egyptians favorably disposed toward this people (the Israelites/Jews*), so that when you leave you will not go empty-handed". The Jews asked Egyptian for valuables, and according to the Bible Yahweh made the Egyptians give it to them. You will meet Muslims telling the Jews were bad people stealing/cheating/extorting money and valuables from the Egyptians. We have till this date never met a Muslim thinking that no matter how much the Jews got, it is unlikely they got enough to make it a fair payment for generations of slave work.

Also: Are the Muslims with all their looting, extortion, etc. - and taking pride from how rich and mighty they became from this - the right persons to blame others for claimed extortion?

015 2. Mos. 4/2-9: Yahweh gives Moses 3 signs to show the pharaoh (Ramses II (or according to some scientists perhaps his successor Merneptah - but in that case the Exodus was a bit later than 1235, as this pharaoh reigned from 1213 BC to 1203 BC, and not much earlier like Islam likes to claim, to be able to find a pharaoh one does not know how died, and thus one who may have drowned)): His staff becomes a snake, his hand becomes white and leprous, and then normal again, and plain water became blood. In the Quran the first sign is the same, in the second his hand becomes white and shiny (20/22) (there is a distinction here, because leprosy - and what was believed to be leprosy - was a feared illness, and the ability to heal such an illness was impressive). The third sign is not in the Quran (28/32). (In addition there were the 10 plagues, but that was later).

016 2. Mos. 5/1a: "This is what the Lord, the God of Israel says - - -". The Quran claims it was the god of everybody.

017 2. Mos. 5/1b: "Let my (Yahweh's*) people (the Jews*) go - - -". This was Moses' entire message according to the Bible. According to the Quran there also was religious debate and proselytizing. From where did Muhammad get this extra information?

018 2. Mos. 5/1c: "Let my (Yahweh's*) people (the Jews*) go, so that they may hold a festival to me in the desert". To make things easier, Pharaoh Ramses II (or according to some scientists perhaps his successor Merneptah - but in that case the Exodus was a bit later than 1235, as this pharaoh reigned from 1213 BC to 1203 BC, and not much earlier like Islam likes to claim, to be able to find a pharaoh one does not know how died, and thus one who may have drowned) originally was not told to let the Israelites/Jews go forever, but to let them go 3 days walk into the desert and there celebrate their god. This is not mentioned in the Quran.

019 2. Mos. 6/10: "Then the Lord (Yahweh*) said to Moses, 'Go, tell Pharaoh king of Egypt to let the Israelites go out of his country". See 2. Mos. 3/10 above.

020 2. Mos. 7/14-11/6: The 10 plagues - blood, frogs, gnats, flies, plague on livestock, boils, hail, locusts, darkness, death of 1. born. In the Quran there were "wholesale death, locusts, lice, frogs, and blood" (7/133). In 17/101 it is said there were 9 clear signs, which in case means there were 7 plagues (+ the 2 first signs - see 2. Mos. 4/2-8 above). In the Bible there are 3 sign + 10 plagues.

021 2. Mos. 10/17: "- - - sin - - -". Remember that what is sin in the Bible and what is sin in the Quran - and the other way around - may be widely different. This is one of the far more than 100% proofs for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god - if they had been, sin in the Bible and sin in the Quran had been more or less identical or at least very similar. (Muslims may try to explain this away by claiming that the Bible is falsified, but we remind you that both science and Islam strongly have proved that this claim is wrong.)

By the way: The same goes for words like righteous, just, right, good, bad, unjust, offence, wrong, crime, etc. They may cover very different meanings in the two books. Also Acts 3/14 is relevant here. The differences in the two books' moral etc. codes behind the differences in the meanings of such words, are strong proofs for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god.

022 2. Mos. 11/2: "Tell the people that men and women alike are to ask their neighbors for articles of silver and gold". See. 2. Mos. 3/21 above.

023 2. Mos. 12/17: "Celebrate the Feast of the Unleavened Bread, because it was on this very day I (Yahweh*) brought your (the Israelite's*) divisions out of Egypt". The Quran claims that the Jews somewhat strict laws for what they can eat, are because of punishment for sins against their god. There is no indication for this in the Bible, and here is an example of a restriction given to commemorate a very central and positive event in their history. The Quran far from always is correct.

024 2. Mos. 12/36: "- - - they (the Egyptians*) gave them (the Jews*) what they asked for, so they plundered the Egyptians". See 2. Mos. 3/21 above.

025 2. Mos. 12/37: "There were about six hundred thousand men on foot, besides women and children". This means some 2 million people all together. This also is something the Quran does not mention, and no Muslim ever mention. 1. Mos. 26/27 tells that Jacob and his family all together counted 70 persons. For 70 persons to become 2 million in the 430 years the Bible tells they were in Egypt, theoretically is quite possible - a geometric process like this quickly reaches high numbers. But Muslims wants the Exodus to have happened much earlier - under pharaohs which may have drowned (as we know that Pharaoh Ramses II - the pharaoh around 1235 BC when science says it happened if it happened - did not drown, the Quran has one more serious mistake if they accept that it happened during the reign of Ramses II. The same goes for his successor Merneptah). Islam often mentions around 1500 BC and sometimes even 1600 BC, which means 100 - 200 years in Egypt. But in 100 or 200 years it is not possible for 70 persons to become 2 millions. Consequently Muslims never mention this verse - it is an indication for that the numbers given in the Bible may be correct, and thus that Exodus really happened under Ramses II (or according to some scientists perhaps his successor Merneptah - but in that case the Exodus was a bit later than 1235, as this pharaoh reigned from 1213 BC to 1203 BC, and not much earlier like Islam likes to claim, to try to find a pharaoh one does not know how died, and thus one who may have drowned). (But it must be mentioned that science think the number 600ooo men are too high.)

But there also is another point: A rich man like Jacob was bound to have had servants, shepherds, and perhaps slaves. It is unlikely these were left behind when he went to Egypt, but they may have been reckoned to be too insignificant to be listed together with the members of the family. Beware here that both 1. Mos. 46/8 and 1. Mos. 46/26 clearly states that the list only includes Jacob's direct descendants, and thus there may have been many servants, etc. in addition - and they may have been many. For a comparison Jacob's grandfather Abraham had just a small family, but all the same was able to mobilize "318 trained men born in his household" (1. Mos. 14/14) - and also servants had descendants. And finally "many other people went up with them - - -" (2. Mos. 12/38). Because of all this the numbers in the Bible at least theoretically are far from impossible.

026 2. Mos. 12/40: "- - - the length of the time the Israelite people lived in Egypt was 430 years". This verse is never mentioned by Muslims or by their scholars. They want it to have happened earlier under pharaohs we know less about than Ramses II - see 2. Mos. 12/37 just above.

027 2. Mos. 13/18: "- - - the Red Sea - - -". But the Hebrew words used here is "Yam Suph", which means "Sea of Reeds". The name "the Red Sea" is never mentioned in the Hebrew OT - only Yam Sup. And there used to be a big shallow lake south of the Bitter Lakes where the Suez Canal now runs, named the "Sea of Reeds" - also called Lake Timsah. If the Israelites were cornered against this lake, the story is much easier to understand. For one thing it is easy to understand why they could have been cornered by the lake - they could reach Sinai no matter whether they marched along the eastern or western shores of that sea. It is far more difficult to understand why a huge group of people and animals heading for Sinai (in the east), walked down the western side of the Red Sea, which they normally then would have to cross by boats they did not have. It also is possible to understand how a wind could make way for them. The wind had to be strong enough to move away the water, but not stronger than it was possible for humans and animals to walk. To make a passage possible in a shallow sea might be possible. To do the same in the much deeper Red Sea by means of such a wind would not be possible - the wind would have to be so strong that no-one could walk in it. If this lake was say 7 - 13 feet (2 - 4 m) deep, it would take a strong wind f.x. to force the water to the end of the lake, but it might be possible as it was wide - but the lake would be plenty deep when it streamed back, to drown the Egyptian army, as hardly many in a dry land would know how to swim.

It also is possible they were cornered against one of the Bitter Seas (or may be even further north). This area had some shallow lakes and marshes. The Red sea, however, is unlikely also for another reason than its depth and the stupidity of going down the western shore of it when one wanted to go east: The Pharaoh followed them "when - - -(he*) - - - was told that the people (the Israelites*) had fled". This means he followed them a short time after they had left, and such a large group of mixed people, included children + animals does not move fast. They hardly would have had time to reach the Red Sea before they were overtaken by the Egyptian soldiers.

028 2. Mos. 14/21: "- - - the Lord (Yahweh*) drove the sea back with a strong east wind - - -". See 2. Mos. 13/18 just above. We may add that the Quran does not mention how the water was moved away.

029 2. Mos. 14/28: "The water flowed back and covered the chariots and horsemen - the entire army of Pharaoh (Ramses II) that had followed the Israelites into the sea. Not one of them survived". We know that Pharaoh Ramses II – and also his successor Merneptah - did not drown. There are at least these possible explanations for why he did not, and for why he did not die until years later:

Ramses II had not himself entered the sea/lake when the water flowed back.

Ramses II himself was not present, but one of his generals leading the army may have been mistaken by the Israelites for the pharaoh.

The army may have been lead by one of Ramses II's perhaps 67 sons, who then has been mistaken by the Israelites for the pharaoh.

The differences here between the Bible and the Quran are for one thing that the Quran states that the pharaoh drowned, which the Bible does not - and which we know Ramses II did not, and also that he did not die until years after the Exodus (which according to science happened ca. 1235 BC if it happened - (or according to some scientists perhaps his successor Merneptah - but in that case the Exodus was a bit later than 1235, as this pharaoh reigned from 1213 BC to 1203 BC, and not much earlier like Islam likes to claim, to be able to find a pharaoh one does not know how died, and thus one who may have drowned)), and for another that the Bible is written by humans (said to be inspired by Yahweh) and humans may make mistakes - whereas the Quran, which clearly says so, claims it is delivered by an omniscient god, and an omniscient god does not make mistakes. The Quran mentions the drowning of the pharaoh at least in these verses: 2/50, 7/136, 8/54, 10/90-92, 17/103, 20/78-79, 26/66, 28/40, 46/55, and 51/40. One quite big mistake in the Quran - a mistake Muslims try to explain away by claiming it happened much earlier, during the reign of less known pharaohs we do not know how died, and who may have drowned. But science is not in doubt.

030 2. Mos. 15/4a: "The best of Pharaoh's officers are drowned - - -". In a song of triumph over what had happened, there is little chance that the drowning of the pharaoh himself had not been mentioned, if the Jews claimed he had drowned. But in the Quran he is claimed to have drowned, something we know from history is wrong - also see 14/28 just above.

031 2. Mos. 15/4b: "- - - the Red Sea". See 2. Mos. 13/18 above.

032 2. Mos. 15/19: "When Pharaoh's horses, chariots and horsemen went into the sea - - -". The pharaoh himself is not mentioned here - in the Quran he clearly is told to have drowned, which is not correct (Pharaoh Ramses II did not drown, and he died years later - one of the picturesque mistakes in the Quran.(Or according to some scientists perhaps Ramses II's successor Merneptah (who also did not drown) - but in that case the Exodus was a bit later than 1235, as this pharaoh reigned from 1213 BC to 1203 BC, and not much earlier like Islam likes to claim, to be able to find a pharaoh one does not know how died, and thus one who may have drowned)

033 2. Mos. 15/20: "- - - Miriam the prophetess, Aaron's (and Moses'*) sister - - -". The Bible names at least 6 female prophets: Miriam here, Deborah (Judg. 4/4), Huldah (2. Chr. 34/22, 2. King 22/14), Noadiah (Neh. 6/14) and Anna (Luke 2/36), and an unnamed one in Is. 8/3. Also remember that the sister of Moses and Aaron - Miriam - is mistaken for Mary, mother of Jesus, by Muhammad. The likely reason is that both names in Arab are written Maryam, and as Muhammad did not know the Bible well, he thought they were one and the same woman. Muslims try in different ways to explain away this mistake, but science is not in doubt that he really made it.

034 2. Mos. 15/22: "Then Moses led Israel from the Red Sea and they went into the Desert of Shur - - -". This as a reference to the Bible's information about Ishmael and his descendants who "settled in the area from Havilah to Shur, near the border of Egypt - - -" (1. Mos. 25/18). Here you see how close Shur, and thus the place where Ishmael’s descendants settled, were to Egypt - - - and very far from Mecca. (Just remember that for Muslims everything in the Bible which can strengthen their claims - directly or by twisting the text or omitting the context - is true, whereas everything which opposes their claims, are falsifications - - - even though both science and Islam strongly have proved the Bible is not falsified.)

035 2. Mos. 15/27: "They (the Israelites*) came to Elim, where there were twelve springs - - -". See 2. Mos. 17/1+6 below.

#036 2. Mos. 16/23: "Tomorrow is to be a day of rest, a holy Sabbath to the Lord". The Sabbath is one of the proofs for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god: The Sabbath/day of rest is essential to Yahweh who many places in the Bible demands that it shall be respected. Allah does not care about such a thing as long as you pray your prayers at the fixed time, and especially the main one on Friday afternoons.

037 2. Mos. 17/1+6: "- - - at Rephidim - - - (Yahweh said to Moses*) - - - Strike the rock, and water will come out of it for the people to drink". In the Quran there is just one such incident about Moses and water (2/60, 7/160). There Moses strikes the rock, and 12 springs emerge. It is likely Muhammad mixed the two incidents - in Elim (2. Mos. 15/17) and here, and thought they were one and the same incident. As mentioned before, Muhammad knew the Bible badly.

038 2. Mos. 17/15: "Moses built an altar - - -". See 1. Mos. 33/20 above.

039 2. Mos. 18/1+5+9+27: "- - - Jethro - - -". See 2. Mos. 3/1a above.

040 2. Mos. Praise be to the Lord (Yahweh*), who rescued you (the Jews*) from the hand of the Egyptians and of Pharaoh - - -". Yahweh, not Allah.

041 2. Mos. 19/5: "Although the whole world is mine (Yahweh's*) - - -". The entire world belonged to Yahweh (even though the descendants of Israel were his specially chosen people). Worth remembering when Muslims claim Allah is the only god for the entire world (Muslims in debates sometimes forget that Islam claims Yahweh and Allah are the same god).

042 2. Mos. 19/9-10: "The Lord (Yahweh*) said to Moses, 'I am going to come to you - - - so that the people will hear me speaking with you - - -". Yahweh here told on his own initiative that he was going to prove himself for the Israelites - and he did, according to the Bible. In the Quran there are points where it says the Israelites demanded that Moses should show them Yahweh. This is not correct according to the Bible, but the incident mentioned here and/or in 1. Mos. 20/18, may be the (misunderstood) background for the claim in the Quran - as said before: Muhammad did not know the Bible much (most of his Biblical tales in the Quran are in reality not from the Bible, but from religious legends, apocryphal (made up - to serve self proclaimed "prophets", etc.) stories, and even fairy tales + some with unknown sources (made up ones) - not strange as the Quran most likely simply is an apocryphal book itself at best (but a far out one in case).

##043 2. Mos. 20/3: "You shall not have other gods before me (Yahweh*)". (one of the 10 commandments.) Something to think about for Muslims praying to Allah instead. But perhaps Yahweh - if he exists - will judge mildly because most Muslims honestly believe he is the same god as Allah. At least perhaps he will be mild against Muslims who have not broken too many of his laws - but remember that a number of Allah's laws and demands may be sin, and even grave sin to follow according to Yahweh, as explained in the Bible.

#044 2. Mos. 20/7: "You (humans*) shall not misuse the name of the Lord (Yahweh*) - - -". This is so essential to Yahweh, that this is one of the 10 Commandments. From other places in the Bible we know here is referred to swearing - you preferably shall not swear, and especially not by the god, but if you do all the same, and even more so if you swear by Yahweh, you have to honor your oath. In the Quran it ok to swear, but preferably you shall not make false oaths. That is to say, if you did not mean what you said the oath does not bind you (2/225a), but if it was a serious oath and you all the same break it, you have to pay expiation (5/89a, 66/2a), at least if it was about something serious. One of the proofs for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god.

#045 2. Mos. 20/8-10: "Remember the Sabbath day by keeping it holy. Six days you (humans*) shall labor and do all your work, but the seventh day is a Sabbath to your Lord the God (Yahweh*). On it you shall not do any work - - -". Also this is so essential to Yahweh, that he has made it one of his 10 commandments. Allah has no such rule - pray your 5 prayers a day - and especially the one at Friday afternoon - and that is it. One of the proofs for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god.

##046 2. Mos. 20/13: "You shall not murder". (Also one of the 10 Commandments). This hardly needs any comments: Muhammad practiced murder and mass murder, and what Muhammad did is permitted for all Muslims if not something else is directly said. And Islam after it was transferred from something peaceful in Mecca to the opposite in Medina, is a pure discrimination, suppression, distaste/hate, and war religion - fascistic or even Nazi-like in ideology (not our words, but the words of f.x. C. G. Young). One of the very strong proofs for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god - this even more so as the atrocities are to be done in the name of Allah, a fact which makes it even more detestable and the distance between Yahweh and Allah even bigger, especially if you compare the youngest parts of the Quran with the youngest parts of the Bible.

##047 2. Mos. 20/14: "You shall not commit adultery". (One of the 10 Commandments.) Jesus and NT accept only one wife for a man and the other way round. Muhammad had 36 women we know by name - 11 long time wives, 16 short time wives, 2 concubines, and 7 we do not know if he was married to or not. If he had more, they at least are not known by name. He also raped at least 2 women (Rayhana bint Amr and Safiyya bint Huayay - and Marieh also had little choice). It is not known if he raped more than those, but the casual way in which his man accepted the rapes, may indicate something. One of the strong proofs for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god - and Jesus and Muhammad was not in the same religion or line of prophets (in addition to that Muhammad was no real prophet - he was unable to make prophesies ("see the unseen"), and a "seer" unable to "see" is no "seer" (a "seer" was the original Jewish title for a prophet (1. Sam. 9/9)). Also rape (and stealing/looting) is "lawful and good" if you do it in the name of Allah (= during/after a "holy war" - and more or less everything is named "holy war") or against your slaves)

Surah 8/69: (Allah/Muhammad says:) "But (now) enjoy what ye (Muslims*) took (=stole*) in war (valuables, captives, slaves (as for raping girls and women Muhammad in Hadiths says coitus interuptus is not advisable, because it is for Allah to decide whether there shall be a child afterwards or not)), lawful and good". That this has to be done in the name of Allah (during/after a "holy" war) makes this immoral extra despiceable. An extreme proof for that Jesus and Muhammad were not in the same religion, the same moral code, the same code of conduct, the same code concerning honesty in words and deeds, etc., not to mention had the same point of view on Jesus words: "Do to others like you would have them do to you" (Luke 6/31). Add this to what we know of historical facts, included about religions, from this part of the Roman Empire at the time of Jesus, and there only is one conclusion possible: Except for the monotheism - whoever said/says the basic thoughts and teaching and religion of Jesus ever were even distantly related to the teaching, etc. of Muhammad, simply did/does not know what he/she was/is talking about - or he/she is using an al-Taqiyya (a lawful lie - accepted in Islam (but in no other of the big religions) for several wide purposes (f.x. to cheat women), and advised to use "if necessary" to defend or promote Islam). The claim that they were in the same line of prophets, we do not even bother to comment on here.

As a "brother" of al-Takiyya and Kitman, etc., we should also mention the tradition for "Hilah": A "device to stop, hinder, or trick - - -. Strategy to avoid or circumvent legal principles or rigid constructs. - - - utilized - - - to solve contradictions between (political powers, cultural chaises, etc*) and Quranic principles". (The Oxford Dictionary of Islam). In plain words: ways/tricks of seemingly or formally being honest or correct, while in reality being dishonest or incorrect. It seems that this aspect of "the religion of truth" was first campaigned of the Hanifi law school, but later utilized also by the other 3 Muslim law schools. "Hilah" is dishonesty in disguise. True honesty is not always central in Islam and among Islam's religious and moral forefront.

##048 2. Mos. 20/15: "You shall not steal". (One of the 10 commandments.) The Quran: To steal is "good and lawful", at least if you do it in the name of Allah, and Muhammad/Islam gets 20% of it. One of the strong proofs for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god - and Jesus and Muhammad was not in the same religion or line of prophets (in addition to that Muhammad was no real prophet - he was unable to make prophesies ("see the unseen") and a "seer" unable to "see" is no "seer" (a "seer" was the original Jewish title for a prophet (1. Sam. 9/9)).

##049 2. Mos. 20/16: "You shall not give false testimony - - -". (From the 10 Commandments). The Quran says you shall not make false testimony unless there is a good reason for it - if it is something really serious (and pay expiation if you break this rule in a serious way). One of the strong proofs for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god - and Jesus and Muhammad was not in the same religion or line of prophets (in addition to that Muhammad was no real prophet - he was unable to make prophesies ("see the unseen"), and a "seer" unable to "see" is no "seer" (a "seer" was the original Jewish title for a prophet (1. Sam. 9/9)).

##050 2. Mos. 20/17: "You shall not covet - - - anything that belongs to your neighbor". The word "neighbor" here is meant in the wide meaning of the word. See 2. Mos. 20/15 above. (What about Muhammad and Zaid's wife Zaynab? - or all Muhammad's - and later Muslims' - raids for riches?)

051 2. Mos. 20/18: "When the people (the Jews*) saw the thunder - - -". See 2. Mos. 19/9-10 above.

052 2. Mos. 20/19: "(The Jews said:) ' But do not have Yahweh speak to us or we will die". This is exactly the opposite of what the Quran claims, when it says the Jews demanded that Moses should show them /prove Yahweh to them. And remember that when Yahweh proved himself to them in chapter 19 and 20, it was on his own initiative, not on their request, according to the Bible.

053 2. Mos. Ch. 21-Ch.27: Different divine laws and rules. Quite a number of them are different from Muhammad's corresponding ones - or are missing there - in the Quran. This is one of the strong proofs for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god - if they had been, the central divine laws and rules had been at least similar.

054 2. Mos. 21/2: "If you buy a Hebrew servant, he is to serve you for six years. But in the seventh year, he shall go free, without paying anything". There is no similar law for slaves or for people living under slave-like conditions in Islam, not even for Muslim victims. A strong indication for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god, as slavery is a major moral question, and one of the points where the Quran's moral code really fails according to the "constitution" of morality: "Do against others like you want others do against you".

055 2. Mos. 21/16: "Anyone who kidnaps another and either sells him or still has him when caught must be put to death". There no such law in the Quran - f.x. stopping Muslim slave hunters through the centuries. Another indication for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god, as they have very different moral basis for their laws.

056 2. Mos. 21/20: "If a man beats his male or female slave with a rod and the slave dies as a direct result, he must be punished". There is no punishment for killing your own slave in the Quran. An indication for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god, as they have very different moral basis for their laws.

057 2. Mos. 22/16: "If a man seduces a virgin who is not pledged to be married and sleeps with her, he must pay the bride price for virgins, and she shall be his wife". In the Quran they instead are to be punished for unlawful sex. One of the proofs for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god - their laws are too different.

#058 2. Mos. 22/21: "Do not oppress an alien - - -". In the Quran you are to suppress any non-Muslim - alien or not - in the entire world. A strong indication for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god, as both suppression and slavery are major moral questions, and one of the too many points where the Quran's moral code fails according to the "constitution" of morality: "Do against others like you want others do against you".

059 2. Mos. 22/25: "If you lend money to one of my (Yahweh's*) people among you who is needy, do not be like a moneylender, charge him no interest". Yahweh permits interest, but you should not charge it from poor people. Allah according to the Quran absolutely forbids it - if you do not find a way to call it something else. But even if the prohibition is clear in Islam, the background for the prohibition is somewhat unclear, so we do not use a stronger expression than: One more indication for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god.

060 2. Mos. 23/8: "Do not accept a bribe, for a bribe blinds those who see and twists the words of the righteous". Muhammad used bribes a lot - perhaps for these reasons? Bribes were one of Muhammad's ways to expand and to keep his power. The giver and the receiver of bribes morally are "in the same boat".

061 2. Mos. 23/9: "Do not mistreat an alien or oppress him - - -". In the Quran you are to suppress any non-Muslim - alien or not - in the entire world. This simply is the official and main goal for Islam. A strong indication for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god, as slavery is a major moral question, and one of the points where the Quran's moral code fails according to the "constitution" of morality: "Do against others like you want others do against you".

#062 2. Mos. 23/12: "Six days do your (humans*) work, but on the seventh day do not work - - -". Also this is so essential to Yahweh, that he has made it one of his 10 commandments (even though this verse is from the laws, not from the Commandments). Allah has no such rule - pray your 5 prayers a day - and especially the one at Friday afternoon - and that is it. One of the proofs for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god - their moral rules and thus the laws are too different also on fundamental points.

063 2. Mos. 23/31a: "- - - the Red Sea - - -". Beware that the name "the Red Sea" is never used in the original Hebrew OT. There is used the name "Yam Suph", which means "the Sea of Reeds", and quite likely means Lake Timsah south of the Bitter Seas - or perhaps even the Bitter Seas themselves (in the region where you today find the Suez Canal). There even is a chance the crossing was further north than this.

064 2. Mos. 23/31b: "- - - the Sea of the Philistines - - -". The Mediterranean Sea - the Philistines lived along that sea and inland from it.

065 2. Mos. 23/31c: "- - - the River - - -". Here the Euphrates.

066 2. Mos. 24/4: "Moses then wrote down everything the Lord (Yahweh*) had said". In the Quran you read that Moses was sent a book from the god - indicated to be a copy of the claimed "Mother of the Book" (13/39, 43/4,85/22) similar to the Quran, which also is a copy of the same book. Here the Quran is contradicted by the Bible, which tells Moses only got the 10 Commandments in writing. The rest he wrote down himself - and this did not include the so-called "Books of Moses" which according to science are written centuries later). Also see 2. Mos. 24/7 just below.

But here beware of a difference between Islamic way of thinking and "normal" ways. Islam tells that "the Mother 0f the Book" (13/39, 43/4, 85/22) was created by Allah long before Earth was created, or maybe has existed since eternity, and that it is timeless and of course unchangeable. But at the same time Islam teaches that the books claimed sent down through the times differed. Such a claim is possible because Muslims are taught that there is not necessarily only one truth - more than one thing may be true even if they are mutually excluding each others. In the cases where the claimed truths are mutually excluding each other, this according to all laws of logic is wrong, but the claim is religiously necessary, because the Quran so many places is wrong or contradicts itself or reality. Islam needs this wrong logic to be able to explain away some of those errors: "Yes, science is right, but the Quran is right, too. Even if the two contradicts each others, both are true".

Muslims should here remember, that if they have learnt things like this, it is wrong. Parallel truths may exist, but NOT if they mutually exclude each other. Where points mutually excludes each other, maximum one of them can be true.

067 2. Mos. 24/7: "- - - the Book of Covenant". What Moses wrote down of Yahweh's words (see 2. Mos. 24/4 just above), was called the Book of Covenant. It later was incorporated in the 5 Books of Moses - and it is easy to see that it has nothing to do with a copy from the claimed Islamic "Mother of the Book" (13/39, 43/4, 85/22), and thus a parallel to the Quran. Remember here that both science and Islam (not intentionally) thoroughly have proved that the Bible is not falsified, which is the wrong claim Islam uses for explaining away this and many other discrepancies between the Bible and the Quran.

068 2. Mos. 24/12: "- - - the tablets of stone, with the law and commands I (Yahweh*) have written - - -". From other places in the Bible we know there only were 2 stone tablets. We also know that many stone tablets would be too heavy for Moses to carry down from the mountain (Mount Sinai). This sentence thus must mean the 10 Commandments, like said other places in the Bible - the basic laws and the basic commands from Yahweh. Also see 2. Mos. 24/4 above. and 2. Mos. 31/18 below.

069 2. Mos. 25/9: "Make this tabernacle and all its furnishing exactly like the pattern I (Yahweh*) will show you (the Israelites/Jews*)". The Bible mentions building of altars, and it use pages on the making of a tent for the revering of the god - and it later tells about Solomon's and later temples. BUT IT NEVER UTTERS ONE WORD ABOUT THE KABAH OR EVEN ABOUT MECCA, WHICH MUHAMMAD - WITHOUT THE SLIGHTEST DOCUMENTATION, LIKE NORMAL FOR HIM AND FOR THE QURAN - CLAIMED WAS BUILT BY ABRAHAM. Draw your own conclusions.

As for the probability for that Abraham built the Kabah (claims about that Adam and later Noah built earlier versions, we do not bother to comment on); take a look on what the Bible mentions of "buildings" up to long after the Jews had finished being just primitive nomads (and f.x. Solomon built his temple). F.x.: 1. Mos. 12/7 - 12/8 - 13/18 - 23/19a - 26/25 - 33/20, 2. Mos. 25/29 - 32/5, Jos. 8/30 - 22/10, Jud. 6/24, 2. Sam. 24/25. Not one single permanent house is mentioned at all. A big stone temple/mosque had been such an outstanding deed, and of such an outstanding religious value that there is no chance that it had been omitted in the texts if it had been true.

070 2. Mos. 25/10: "Have them make a chest of acacia wood - - - Overlay it with pure gold - - -". This is the start of the Ark of Covenance (or Testimony) - and Moses' Israelites built it. An interesting piece of information as the Quran one place claims it was sent to them ((2/248) "- - - there shall come to you the Ark of Covenance - - - carried by angels").- and a lot later (during the reign of Saul some 300 years later - 2 mistake in 1 in the Quran here if the Bible is correct).

One small point: In Islam natural pictures are prohibited. But over the Ark of Covenance there were the "natural" pictures (sculptures) of 2 angels. Another indication for that Islam was not involved in Moses' religion, and for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god.

071 2. Mos. 26/1: "Make the tabernacle - - -". See 2. Mos. 25/9 above.

072 2. Mos. 27/9: "Make a courtyard for the tabernacle - - -". See 25/9 above.

073 2. Mos. 28/1: "- - - serve me (Yahweh*) as priests". See 2. Mos. Ch. 29 just below.

074 2. Mos. Ch. 29: Consecration of the Priests. Yahweh and Allah have very different rules for priests - and for the consecration of them. A strong proof for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god - if they had been, also the rules for his priests had been at least reasonably similar. And also the rules for how to honor the god had been at least reasonably similar.

075 2. Mos. 29/36: "- - - sin - - -". Remember that what is sin in the Bible and what is sin in the Quran - and the other way around - may be widely different. This is one of the far more than 100% proofs for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god - if they had been, sin in the Bible and sin in the Quran had been more or less identical or at least very similar. (Muslims may try to explain this away by claiming that the Bible is falsified, but we remind you that both science and Islam strongly have proved that this claim is wrong.)

By the way: The same goes for words like righteous, just, right, good, bad, unjust, offence, wrong, crime, etc. They may cover very different meanings in the two books. Also Acts 3/14 is relevant here. The differences in the two books' moral etc. codes behind the differences in the meanings of such words, are strong proofs for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god.

076 2. Mos. 31/12-18: "- - - Sabbath - - -". The Sabbath is so essential to Yahweh, that he has made respecting it one of his 10 commandments. Allah has no such rule - pray your 5 prayers a day - and especially the one at Friday afternoon - and that is it. One of the proofs for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god.

077 2. Mos. 31/14: "Observe the Sabbath, because it is holy to you - - -". There is no such law in the Quran about this after all central religious point. There is no holy day in Islam - Friday is special, but not holy. A proof for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god. Also see 2. Mos. 31/12-18 just above.

078 2. Mos. 31/18a: "When the Lord (Yahweh*) finished speaking to Moses on Mount Sinai, he gave him the two tablets of the Testimony, the tablets of stone inscribed by the finger of God (Yahweh*)". Once more indirectly confirmed that Moses got the two tablets of stone, and no book like the Quran claims. The Quran here indirectly, but clearly is contradicted by the Bible.

079 2. Mos. 31/18b: "- - - the Testimony - - -". Another name for the 10 Commandments.

080 2. Mos. 32/2: "Aaron answered them (the Israelites/Jews*), 'Take off the gold earrings - - - and bring them to me". In the Bible Aaron did not oppose the idea of the golden calf much if at all. In the Quran Aaron is a prophet and of course does not give in to such things until after strong pressure. We may add that to at least people from the West a golden calf as a god seems strange, but it was an Egyptian tradition and had to do with the reverence of the holy ox Apis, which was an incarnation of the main Egyptian god and creator god Ptah. The golden calf thus indirectly represented the Egyptian god Ptah.

The Bible also does not mention the Samari man which Muhammad blames the story on in the Quran. From where did Muhammad find this claimed person? - especially as Samaria from where a Samari would have to come, did not exist until centuries later (this was around 1235 AD, Samaria was founded ca. 880 BC under King Omri - later destroyed by the Assyrians in 722 BC).

#081 2. Mos. 32/4: "- - - idol - - -". Handmade idols were not themselves gods - except perhaps in the most primitive cultures - but represented a god. F.x. the infamous golden calf of Moses' Israelites f.x. really was a symbol for the (Egyptian) holy ox Apis, which again was believed to be a manifestation of one of the Egyptian main gods, Ptah. Thus the main thing was not the idol, but the belief existing in the brain of the believers. This - that the belief was/is the main thing - should go also for idols existing only in the brains and hearts of the believers, which is the likely reality for Allah, as the only source for information or "information" about him, is a book not from any god and told by a man with very doubtful moral and reliability, but with much to gain from making people believe in his new religion, a point strengthened by the fact that Allah never and no place has manifested himself in any provable way. The Quran never mentions that a made up god just is a made up god no matter if he is a mental human creation and idol or a physical such one. In religion it is what is in your brain and heart which counts and decides - saves you or condemns you. If Allah is a made up god, he simply is a mental idol.

082 2. Mos. 32/5: "- - - (Aaron*) built an altar - - -". Still to build an altar is such a central thing that the Bible sometimes mentions it. But still - and now we are something like 600 years after Abraham - there has not been mentioned one single word about Israelites/Jews building anything big, except what they were forced to do as slaves in Egypt. Especially we mention that there has not been mentioned one word about building mosques (like the Kabah) or temples - - - or any contact with the Arab peninsula.

As for the probability for that Abraham built the Kabah (claims about that Adam and later Noah built earlier versions, we do not bother to comment on); take a look on what the Bible mentions of "buildings" up to long after the Jews had finished being just primitive nomads (and f.x. Solomon built his temple). F.x.: 1. Mos. 12/7 - 12/8 - 13/18 - 23/19a - 26/25 - 33/20, 2. Mos. 25/29 - 32/5, Jos. 8/30 - 22/10, Jud. 6/24, 2. Sam. 24/25. Not one single permanent house is mentioned at all. A big stone temple/mosque had been such an outstanding deed, and of such an outstanding religious value that there is no chance that it had been omitted in the texts if it had been true.

083 2. Mos. 32/15: "Moses turned and went down the mountain with the two tablets of the Testimony (see 2. Mos. 31/18b above*) in his hands. They were inscribed on sides, front and back." Once more the Quran is contradicted by the Bible: Only the 10 Commandments in writing - no book. And you may bet huge money on that if Moses had got a holy book written by Yahweh, it had been mentioned - Moses was too big a hero for the Jews to omit such a gift from the god to him.

084 2. Mos. 32/19: "When Moses approached the camp and saw the calf and the dancing, his anger burned and he threw the tablets out of his hands, breaking them to pieces". Contradicted by the Quran, which claims he laid them carefully down and picked them up later (according to the Bible he had to get 2 new ones from Yahweh afterwards - 2. Mos. 34/28). A small, but telling contradiction.

085 2. Mos. 32/21: "- - - sin - - -". Remember that what is sin in the Bible and what is sin in the Quran - and the other way around - may be widely different. This is one of the far more than 100% proofs for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god - if they had been, sin in the Bible and sin in the Quran had been more or less identical or at least very similar. (Muslims may try to explain this away by claiming that the Bible is falsified, but we remind you that both science and Islam strongly have proved that this claim is wrong.)

By the way: The same goes for words like righteous, just, right, good, bad, unjust, offence, wrong, crime, etc. They may cover very different meanings in the two books. Also Acts 3/14 is relevant here. The differences in the two books' moral etc. codes behind the differences in the meanings of such words, are strong proofs for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god.

086 2. Mos. 32/22: "(Aaron said:*) 'You (Moses*) know how prone these people are to evil. They said to me, 'Make us gods who will go before us. As for this fellow Moses who brought us out of Egypt, we don't know what has happened to him'. So I told them, 'Whoever has any gold jewelry, take it off'. Then they gave me the gold, and I threw it into the fire, and out came the calf'". This is all that is said in the Bible about the making of the golden calf. In the Quran there is a long story putting the blame on a Samarian (even though Samaria was not founded and given that name until some 350 years later (ca. 880 BC under King Omri - later destroyed by the Assyrians in 722 BC)). Once more the Quran is clearly contradicted by the Bible - and here also by the reality, as Samaria did not exist at the time of Moses (the Exodus according to science happened - if it happened - ca. 1235 BC).

087 2. Mos. 32/30+31+33+34: "- - - sin - - - sinned - - -". Remember that what is sin in the Bible and what is sin in the Quran - and the other way around - may be widely different. This is one of the far more than 100% proofs for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god - if they had been, sin in the Bible and sin in the Quran had been more or less identical or at least very similar. (Muslims may try to explain this away by claiming that the Bible is falsified, but we remind you that both science and Islam strongly have proved that this claim is wrong.)

By the way: The same goes for words like righteous, just, right, good, bad, unjust, offence, wrong, crime, etc. They may cover very different meanings in the two books. Also Acts 3/14 is relevant here. The differences in the two books' moral etc. codes behind the differences in the meanings of such words, are strong proofs for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god.

088 2. Mos. 33/18: "Now show me (Moses*) your (Yahweh's*) glory". According to the Quran it was the people who demanded to see the god. Such a demand is nowhere mentioned in the Bible.

089 2. Mos. 34/7+9: "- - - sin - - -". Remember that what is sin in the Bible and what is sin in the Quran - and the other way around - may be widely different. This is one of the far more than 100% proofs for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god - if they had been, sin in the Bible and sin in the Quran had been more or less identical or at least very similar. (Muslims may try to explain this away by claiming that the Bible is falsified, but we remind you that both science and Islam strongly have proved that this claim is wrong.)

By the way: The same goes for words like righteous, just, right, good, bad, unjust, offence, wrong, crime, etc. They may cover very different meanings in the two books. Also Acts 3/14 is relevant here. The differences in the two books' moral etc. codes behind the differences in the meanings of such words, are strong proofs for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god.

090 2. Mos. 34/10: "I (Yahweh*) am making a covenant with you (the Israelites/Jews*)". You do not find a similar sentence about Muslims in the Quran - only Muhammad's claim that there is a covenant with Allah.

091 2. Mos. 34/14: "Do not worship any other god (than Yahweh*) - - -". What then about the Muslims, who worship a very different god, the god of war Allah?

092 2. Mos. 34/21: "Six days you shall labor, but on the seventh day you shall rest - - -". There is nothing like this in the Quran, and as this is a central religious point for Yahweh, but of no consequence for Allah, it is one of the strong proofs for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god.

093 2. Mos. 34/27: "- - - I (Yahweh*) have made a covenant with you (Moses*) and with Israel". You do not find a similar sentence about Muhammad or his Muslims in the Quran - only Muhammad's never documented claim that there is a covenant with Allah.

094 2. Mos. 34/28: "And he (Yahweh*) wrote on the tablets the words of the covenant - the Ten Commandments". Here it once more is told that Moses got the 10 Commandments 2 times - a small, but telling contradiction to the Quran.

095 2. Mos. 35/2: "For six days, work is to be done, but the seventh day shall be your holy day, a Sabbath of rest to the Lord". For Yahweh Sabbath is so essential that this is repeated several times in the Bible, and even is part of the 10 Commandments. For Allah it does not matter at all - pray your 5 prayers a day, and especially the one on Friday afternoons, and that is it. One of the strong proofs for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god.

096 2. Mos. 36/8-37/29: The making of the tabernacle. See 2. Mos. 25/9 above.

007 2. Mos. 37/1: "Bezalel made the ark of acacia wood - - -". A strong contradiction to the Quran which tells (2/248) that "- - - there shall come to you the Ark of Covenance - - - carried by angels". No comment necessary. The Quran also is some 200 - 300 years late, as it places this during the reign of Saul a little before/around 1ooo BC, instead of under Moses around 1230 BC. Also see 2. Mos. 40/20 below.

098 2. Mos. 39/35 : "- - - the ark of Testimony - - -". Another name for the ark of Covenance - or the other way round. Also see 2. Mos. 40/20 below.

099 2. Mos. 40/1: "Set up the tabernacle - - -". See 2. Mos. 25/9 above.

100 2. Mos. 40/3+40/5: "- - - the ark of Testimony - - -". Another name for the ark of Covenance - or the other way round. Also see 2. Mos. 40/20 just below.

101 2. Mos. 40/20: "He (Moses*) took the Testimony (here the 10 commandments) and placed it in the ark - - -". It is clear it is Moses who handles the ark and the stone tablets with the Commandments, not angels.

One small point: In Islam natural pictures are prohibited. But over the Ark of Covenance there were the "natural" pictures (sculptures) of 2 cherubim (a special kind of angels). Another indication for that Islam was not involved in Moses' religion, and for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god.

And another point: As for the probability for that Abraham built the Kabah (claims about that Adam and later Noah built earlier versions, we do not bother to comment on); take a look on what the Bible mentions of "buildings" up to long after the Jews had finished being just primitive nomads (and f.x. Solomon built his temple). F.x.: 1. Mos. 12/7 - 12/8 - 13/18 - 23/19a - 26/25 - 33/20, 2. Mos. 25/29 - 32/5, Jos. 8/30 - 22/10, Jud. 6/24, 2. Sam. 24/25. Not one single permanent house is mentioned at all. A big stone temple/mosque had been such an outstanding deed, and of such an outstanding religious value that there is no chance that it had been omitted in the texts if it had been true.

subtotal: 101 + 101 = 202 remarks.

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This work was uploaded with assistance from M. A. Khan, the author of Islamic Jihad: A Legacy of Forced Conversion, Imperialism and Slavery, and the editor of islam-watch.org website.