Bible versus Quran: 1000+ Differences & Contradictions

 

The Bible: Its Divergences from the Quran and Islam

GENESIS (Mos 1)

 


The 5 Books of Moses are often called "the Law" or "the Torah". It is unclear by whom and when they are written. Minor parts of it may be from Moses - the original "Book of Covenance" was written down by Moses according to the Bible (2. Mos. 24/4-7), and later incorporated in these books, but the rest is younger. Moses according to science lived around 1300 - 1200 BC (if the known numbers all are correct, he lived from 1315 BC to 1195 BC), but science believe that but for what is taken from "the Book of Covenance", the oldest parts of the "Books of Moses" are from around 800 or at least not older than 950 BC. The youngest parts may be as young as from around 400 BC. (We may add that the myth you often meet from Muslims that Ezra had to rewrite the Books of Moses in or after Babylon - and used the chance to falsify them - is just that: A myth. It is well possible that the copy of the books in the Temple and even all copies in Jerusalem were burnt by Nebuchadnezzar when he sacked the city in 586 BC, but there existed many more copies inside and outside Judah (the southern kingdom - roughly what is now the land around Jerusalem in Israel.) - far too many for that it could be possible for Ezra to falsify the old book without being found out - - - and besides there is not a word in the Bible about Ezra rewriting the old books.)

001 One central point in the books of Moses: The ways of addressing and celebrating and praying to and worshipping the god is marked different in the Bible compared to the Quran - one more proof for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god (if they had been, their demands about this had been more or less similar).

The same goes for the different kinds of offerings - the offerings the two gods wishes, and the conditions concerning the offerings, to a large degree are very different - another proof for that the two gods are not the same one.

##002 1. Mos. 1/1: "In the beginning Yahweh created the heavens and the earth". This contradicts the Quran's claim that Allah did this - but quite likely science is the institution which really is right on this point, and it says it was created by nature. (There are more points concerning creation where the Bible and the Quran differs - and differs about which god did it. But as science here very likely is more correct than religion, we do not go deeply into this. We just mention that if science really is correct, there are mistakes in both books. But as the Bible is written by humans, the mistakes can be because of humans. The situation is much different for the Quran, as it claims to be made by an omniscient god - or has existed since eternity and is revered by Allah in his Heaven. Omniscient gods do not make mistakes, and consequently if there are mistakes in the Quran, something is seriously wrong with the book, and hence with Islam.

Omniscient gods also do not revere books full of mistaken facts and other errors. And gods believing in practicing the truth, definitely do not revere books accepting the use of - and containing - dishonesty, like the Quran does.

003 1. Mos. 1/2: "- - - the Spirit of Yahweh was hovering over the waters". "The Spirit of Yahweh/God" is another name for the Holy Spirit. There are something like a dozen names used for the Holy Spirit in the Bible (just like Islam has 99 names for Allah and lots of names for Muhammad). Remember this f.x. when Muslims claim that John in 15/26 cannot have meant the Holy Spirit, because he used another name ("the Spirit of truth" - one of its other names), and thus that John must have meant Muhammad - in spite of the fact that Muhammad for one thing lived half a millennium too late to be any helper to the disciples of Jesus, and in spite of that he far from was a spirit of truth with his view on honesty and even betrayal and breaking of even oaths (see f.x. verses 2/225a, 5/89a, 16/91b, and 66/2a in the Quran) . Muslims also - as normal without documentation (not even in the Quran) - often claims that the Holy Spirit just is another name for the arch angel Gabriel, so note that here clearly is said "Spirit" - both Yahweh and the old Israelites writing the Biblical scriptures knew the difference between a spirit and an angel. Actually there nowhere is made quite clear what the Holy Spirit is, except that it is a spirit - but it is made very clear that it is something very special, and also that it very clearly is something much more than an angel, even than an arch angel. (No-one reading the Bible with an open mind would get the idea that the Holy Spirit is Gabriel or any other angel.) But we stress that the idea that the Holy Spirit = Gabriel is not from the Quran.

#004 1. Mos. 1/3: "And God (Yahweh*) said - - -". All over the Bible it is made clear that it is Yahweh who makes things happen, and not other gods like f.x. Allah. This is so obvious that we comment on it just a few times.

005 1. Mos. 1/3-4: "And Yahweh said, 'Let there be light', and there was light. Yahweh saw the light was good, and he separated the light from the darkness". This contradicts the Quran, which claims Allah f.x. separated night from day. But we should add that science tells that day and night are made by nature.

006 1. Mos. 1/26: "Then Yahweh said: 'Let us make man in our image, in our likeness - - -". One thing is that Yahweh says he would create man - if he did, it was not done by Allah. Another thing - and more interesting just here - is that Yahweh must look at least roughly human if this quote is true, as opposed to in the Quran where it is indicated that it is impossible to know what the god looks like.

007 1. Mos. 1/27: "So Yahweh created man in his own image, in the image of Yahweh he created him - - -". Similar to 1. Mos. 1/26 just above.

008 1. Mos. 2/2-3: "By the seventh day Yahweh had finished the work (of creation*) he had been doing; so on the seventh day he rested from all his work. And Yahweh blessed the seventh day and made it holy - - -". There is nothing like this in the Quran, and Muslims have no day of rest once a week - the prayer on Friday afternoon is special, but that is it. Economically this seemingly might give Muslims an edge, as they can work 7 days a week if they want to. But our bodies originally were fit for hunter/gatherers, and not really constructed for continuous work. It may seem that this rest may enable man to do at least as much in 6 days, as continuous work results in 7 days work a week. It also is symptomatic that you find a day of rest once in 7 days in many religions and cultures, and there may be a reason for this.

009 1. Mos. 2/7: "- - - the Lord Yahweh formed man from the dust on the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and man became a living being". This contradicts the Quran's claim that man was created by Allah. (But we add that according to science, man developed from earlier primates.)

010 1. Mos.2/8: "- - - a garden in the east, in Eden - - -". Science believes this refers to the wetlands/river delta in southeast Iraq. In the Quran nothing is said about where it was situated.

011 1. Mos.2/9: "- - - the tree of life and the tree of knowledge of good and evil". In the Quran only the tree of knowledge is mentioned. (As for knowledge also see 22/3a in Part III (from the Quran) - an interesting one.)

012 1. Mos. 2/10: "A river watering the garden (of Eden*) flowed from Eden (science believe Eden is modeled from the wetlands in what is now south Iraq*), from where it separated into four headwaters". Also in the Quran you will find 4 rivers mentioned, perhaps inspired from these 4. But they come not from the Garden of Eden here on Earth, but from Paradise in Heaven, and 2 of them continue here on Earth: The Nile and Euphrates. There must be spectacular waterfalls where those two rivers fall from Heaven to Earth, but the Quran does not mention where to find them.

013 1. Mos. 3/1-6: In the Bible Eve eat from the forbidden tree of knowledge because of being tempted by the serpent, whereas in the Quran she was tempted by Iblis/the Devil (but then also Jews and Christians see the Devil behind the serpent here.)

014 1. Mos. 3/23: "So the Lord Yahweh banished him (Adam - and Eve*) from the Garden of Eden - - -". Around here somewhere the myth about man's inherited sin starts. In the Quran there is an addition, saying that Allah all the same forgave Adam. Islam thus does not have a similar myth - one plus for the Quran and Islam (but unluckily one of too few ones).

015 1. Mos. 4/3-16: The story about Cain and Abel in the Quran roughly is like in the Bible, but details - also central ones - are different. From where did Muhammad get the extra information?

016 1. Mos. 4/7: "- - - sin - - -". Remember that what is sin in the Bible and what is sin in the Quran - and the other way around - may be widely different. This is one of the far more than 100% proofs for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god - if they had been, sin in the Bible and sin in the Quran had been more or less identical or at least very similar. (Muslims may try to explain this away by claiming that the Bible is falsified, but we remind you that both science and Islam - not from free will - strongly have proved that this claim is wrong.)

By the way: The same goes for words like righteous, just, right, good, bad, unjust, offence, wrong, crime, etc. They may cover very different meanings in the two books. Also Acts 3/14 is relevant here. The differences in the two books' moral etc. codes behind the differences in the meanings of such words, are strong proofs for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god.

017 1. Mos. 5/1: "When Yahweh created man, he made him in the likeness of Yahweh". Similar to 1. Mos. 1/26 and 1/27 above.

018 1. Mos. 5/4: "After Seth (3. son of Adam and Eve*) was born, Adam lived 800 years and had other sons and daughters". These sons and daughters are not mentioned in the Quran, but help to explain the population on Earth.

019 1. Mos. 6/5-7/5: Noah before the flood. Roughly the story about Noah is similar in the two books, but many details vary - some of them significantly. One main difference is that in the Quran Noah had religious disputes with his surroundings, and experiences similar to Muhammad's before Muhammad became powerful - like all other real or claimed prophets told about in the Quran - one of Muhammad's methods to "prove" that his position was typical for prophets, and thus that he himself was a typical prophet. (One partly exception - but only partly - was Jesus. Too much was known about Jesus, so it was not possible to twist him completely into Muhammad's frame on this point). The Bible mentions no such disputes. As the Quran with all its errors is from no god; from where did Muhammad get the information about these claimed disputes?

020 1. Mos. 6/18a: "- - - I (Yahweh*) will establish my covenant with you (Noah*) - - -". This is the first mentioning of such a covenant in the Bible. It is not mentioned in the Quran. Actually in the Quran one gets no clear message for when the god started to covenant special persons or tribes - the impression is that it there starts with Abraham, though it also in the Quran is clear the god took a special interest in Noah.

021 1. Mos. 6/18b: "- - - you (Noah*) and your sons, and your sons' wives with you". In the Quran one of his sons did not come into the ark, but instead some followers did so - not so in the Bible. From where is this new information?

022 1. Mos. 7/1: "Go into your Ark, you (Noah*) and your whole family - - -". In the Quran one of his sons (he only had 3 according to the Bible - Shem, Ham and Japheth) drowns. The "drama" around that drama in the Quran, also naturally is not in the Bible - from where did Muhammad get that? (The same goes for Noah's wife; the Quran claims she later ends in Hell. There is no indication for that in the Bible.) Also see 1. Mos. 10/2-32 below.

023 1. Mos. 7/7 + 7/13: Both similar to 7/1 just above - the claimed fact strengthened.

024 1. Mos. 8/4: "- - - the ark came to rest on the Mountains in Ararat". According to the Quran (11/44a below) it came to rest on Mount al-Judi. Mount al-Judi is a 2058 m (one source says 2089 m) high mountain in Syria. Mount Ararat is a sleeping volcanic cone in east Turkey near the border of Armenia. It has two peaks, one of 16.854 ft./5137 m, the other 12.782 ft./3896 m. It is the highest one which is meant in the Bible according to the experts. (But one should know that there was some debate on which mountain really was the correct one before the name was entered into the Bible.)

025 1. Mos. 8/18: "So Noah went out (from the ark*) together with his sons and his wife and his sons' wives". See 7/1, 7/7, and 7/13 above. The fact(?)/difference between the Bible and the Quran on this point even more strengthened.

026 1. Mos. 9/6: "- - - in the image of Yahweh has Yahweh made man". Similar to 1. Mos. 1/26 and 1/27 above.

027 1. Mos. 10/2-32: The sons of Noah after the flood - all the 3 of them - and their descendants. See 1. Mos. 7/1 above.

028 1. Mos. 11/26-31: Abraham and his father (Terah in the Bible, Azar in the Quran) living in Ur of the Chaldeans. There is no indication of a religious quarrel with the surrounding people like claimed in the Quran (Muhammad in the Quran made Abraham a parallel to himself, like he did to all the real and claimed prophets in the Quran - "indicating" that Muhammad's problems were normal problems for prophets, and thus that Muhammad was a normal prophet). From where did Muhammad get the information about this claimed quarrel, as the Bible is the only known source for information(?) about Abraham as long as it is clear that no god was involved in the making of the Quran (too many errors)?

029 1. Mos. 11/31-32: Abraham, his father, and Lot living together till Abraham was 75 years old (verse 12/4). In the Quran Abraham and his father had a religious quarrel and Abraham told he would leave him. There is no indication about such a quarrel in the Bible.

030 1. Mos. 12/2: "I (Yahweh*) will make you (Abraham*) into a great nation - - -". Something to remember when Arabs claim also they are descendants of Abraham? - it here is said "a great nation", not "two or more nations". (In addition there is the fact that there are every reason to believe Abraham never visited Arabia (more further down), and the fact that the Bible tells that Ishmael, whom the Arabs claim as their forefather, settled east of where the Suez Canal now runs (1. Mos. 25/18), and not even near Arabia, not to mention near Mecca.)

But also see 1. Mos. 17/6 - this may or may not refer to the nation(s) of Ishmael near Egypt + Edom (descendants of Esau) + Judah (the southern kingdom) + Israel (the northern kingdom), etc. + the possible ones in the east under descendants from Abraham's at least 6 other sons - 1. Mos. 25/6 indicates he also had sons with concubines.

031 1. Mos. 12/3: "- - - and all peoples on earth will be blessed through you (Abraham*)". Remember these words - and for 2 reasons: One is that you will meet this sentence twisted a little by Muslims to fit the Quran and Islam better. The other is that "all peoples on earth will be blessed through you" - this is worth remembering each time you meet Muslims claiming that Yahweh and Jesus only were for the Israelites/Jews, whereas Allah and Muhammad were for the entire world (in debates Muslims sometimes forget they (wrongly - but most of them believe it) claim that Yahweh and Allah are the same god). There are a number of points in the Bible saying Yahweh - and Jesus - were for all the world, but Muslims never mention any of them or denies them and claim they are among the claimed falsifications (also this is wrong, but many Muslims honestly believe in it).

032 1. Mos. 12/7: Abraham built an altar at Moreh at Sechem. For one thing this is the biggest thing the Bible mention Abraham ever builds: Altars. As essential is that the Bible even mentions he built such small thing. But the Bible never mention he ever built a huge temple/mosque - not to mention that he built it far down in Arabia, some 600 miles (1ooo km) from where he normally lived. Also see 1. Mos. 12/8 and 13/18b below.

As for the probability for that Abraham built the Kabah (claims about that Adam and later Noah built earlier versions, we do not bother to comment on); take a look on what the Bible mentions of "buildings" up to long after the Jews had finished being just primitive nomads (and f.x. Solomon built his temple). F.x.: 1. Mos. 12/7 - 12/8 - 13/18 - 23/19a - 26/25 - 33/20, 2. Mos. 25/29 - 32/5, Jos. 8/30 - 22/10, Jud. 6/24, 2. Sam. 24/25. Not one single permanent house is mentions at all. A big stone temple/mosque had been such an outstanding deed, and of such an outstanding religious value, that there is no chance that it had been omitted in the texts if it had been true.

033 1. Mos. 12/8: Abraham builds another altar (see 1. Mos. 12/7 just above), now in Bethel. These small jobs of a few hours, or MAXIMUM a day or two if he built big ones and had to transport the stones - these ones the Bible mentions, but not the very big building in a desert valley halfway down the desert of the Arabian peninsula. As you will see, the Bible never mentions Abraham building anything big at all - nomads living in tent neither have the technology, nor the skills needed for building big stone buildings. And when they roam far and wide it also is meaningless to build big stone buildings - they are not around to use them.

Remember 1. Mos. 12/7+8, 1. Mos. 13/18b, and similar information in the Bible when Muslims claim Abraham and Ishmael built the Kabah mosque in Mecca, Arabia. Also see 1. Mos. 12/7 just above.

034 1. Mos. 12/10: "Now Abram (Abraham*) went down to Egypt to live there for a while - - -". The Bible gives a rough sketch of Abraham's mowing around. There is never mentioned anything about even a short trip to even the outskirts of Arabia.

The book tells he travelled from Ur of the Chaldeans in what now is south Iraq, north to Haran in north Iraq. Then on to Canaan - roughly Israel today - and later to Egypt (the trip mentioned here). Later he returned to Canaan via Negev (the mainly but not only desert area between Canaan and Egypt). Later he moved further east to Mamre in Hebron - to the west of the Dead Sea. The town Hebron was (and is) some 20 miles/30 km south, southwest of Jerusalem, and Mamre likely is near what today is named Ramat el-Chalil 2 miles/3 km north of Hebron. Then came the expedition to save Lot, where Abraham followed the captors "as far as Dan". We do not know where this town Dan was situated (not identical to Dan in north Israel), but we know the road to Damascus went past it, which indicates it lay to the north. The next place mention is the neighborhood of Shur (1. Mos. 16/7) - Shur was a desert in the western part of Sinai. Then again he goes to Canaan (1. Mos. 17/8) and Mamre (1. Mos. 18/1) - it seems he lived there for some time. Then he moved into Negev again and lived "between Kadesh and Shur" (1. Mos. 20/1). Kadesh is a spring and a town in the Sin (or Zin) desert east of the bay of Suez in west Negev. "For a while he stayed in Gerar" (1. Mos. 20/1) - this was a town south of Gaza (which means east of the Mediterranean Sea and west Sinai).

The next name mentioned is "the desert of Beersheba", where Hagar and Ishmael wandered after they had been sent away from Abraham (1. Mos. 21/14). Beersheba - today Beer Sheva - was and is an area and a town in what today is south Israel, and to the west of the Dead Sea, and the desert of Beersheba is "a desert in the heights west of the Dead Sea, near the town Beersheba furthest south in Palestine", and it is mentioned that they later lived in the desert of Paran (1Mos. 21/21). Paran lies in the central parts of the Sinai peninsula, and is today named Badiet et-Tin - "the Desert of Loneliness". But near Mecca is a desert which according to our information originally was named Faran. The name of this desert Muslims started to pronounce Paran and then started to claim it was/is the Paran from the Bible. Such things happen in the "religion of truth" when some twisting of facts may make the Quran look true at a point. Paran in Sinai became Faran/Paran near Mecca, and "voila": Hagar and Ishmael lived in Mecca like Muhammad claimed!! To be able to claim this was the correct Faran/Paran, you also will meet Muslims and Islamic scriptures claiming that all deserts south of Beersheba were named "the Desert of Beersheba", but also this is wrong. The real Desert of Paran as said was what today is named Badiet et-Tin in Sinai, south of the deserts Sin (or Zin) and Shur. There is a further indication for that this is correct in 1. Mos. 21/21, which tells that Ishmael got a wife from Egypt, which was easy in Paran in Sinai, but pretty difficult in the far more distant - hundreds of miles - Faran/Paran in Arabia, not to mention that 1. Mos. 25/18 says that his descendants settled "in the area from Havila to Shur, near the border of Egypt" - words Muslims never quote.

As you see there is no indication for that Abraham ever came nearer Mecca than Hebron, south of Jerusalem, and Sinai, as Abraham never is told to have travelled even in the neighborhood of region of Mecca. There on the other hand are clear indications for that Abraham and also Ishmael also never came near Arabia, not to mention Mecca. And there are very heavy reasons why a man with large flocks of animals would never travel through the Arab desert to a desert valley without water (the Zamzam spring was not found until later according to the Quran). Abraham - and Ishmael - simply never visited the dry desert valley where Mecca later came. To quote science's more careful language: "There is no indication in history for that Abraham ever visited Mecca, but strong reasons why a nomad with large flocks of animals should not go there".

Also see the Quran 2/191c, 3/97b, and 48/27d below and not least 22/26a below. And see 2/125e in http://www.1000mistakes.com.

For Abraham also see the Quran 2/124a, 2/125a, 2/127a, 2/128a, 3/97b, 22/78c and 14/37b below - for the claim that Abraham ever visited Mecca see especially 2/127a below and 2/125e in http://www.1000mistakes.com.

The claim that Abraham (and Ishmael) built the Kabah mosque, most scientists do not even bother to comment on.

Specifications about Paran: As Muslims are so eager to reshape the geography here, we may specify: Because the name is rather similar to Faran (renamed to Paran, but according to our sources originally named Faran) near Mecca, and because the Bible tells Ishmael lived for a long time in Paran, Muslims want Paran to mean Faran near Mecca, so as to "document" that Ishmael lived in Mecca. But Paran is mentioned at least these places in the Bible: 1. Mos. 21/21, 4. Mos. 10/12, 4. Mos. 12/16, 4. Mos. 13/3, 4. Mos. 13/26, 5. Mos. 1/1, 1. Sam.25/1, 1. Kings 11/18, and there is no doubt from the different contexts that the Bible's Paran is in Sinai, and that there is not the slightest connection to the distant Arabia. It as mentioned is identical to what now is named Badiet et-Tin ("the Desert of Loneliness"), and lay south and east of the desert Shur, and south of the desert Sin (or Zin) in the inner parts of the Sinai Peninsula.

035 1. Mos. 13/1: "So Abram (Abraham*) went up from Egypt to Negev (and lived there for a while*) - - -". See 1. Mos. 12/10 just above.

036 1. Mos. 13/11-12: Abraham and Lot split up, Lot settled in the southeast near the Dead Sea and Sodom - still far from the future Mecca. But worse: Abraham settled in Canaan further north and west - considerably further from the future Mecca.

037 1. Mos. 13/18a: "So Abraham moved his tents and went to live near the great trees of Mamre at Hebron - - -". The Bible reports on Abraham's movements and one can roughly follow how he moved his camp over the years. After he split with Lot, this may be the closest his camp ever came to the place where Mecca millennia later was built (if Abraham ever lived, he lived around 1800 - 2000 BC). And may be the closest Abraham himself ever came to the place where Mecca later was built, was Mamre in Hebron in what now is south Israel (some 20 miles or some 30 km south of Jerusalem), except for the time he lived in Negev and in the Sinai peninsula (at the wrong side of the Bay of Aqaba compared to Mecca), and perhaps except for his expedition to rescue Lot (1. Mos. 14/12-15), though that one may have been further north.

038 1. Mos. 13/18b: Abraham builds another altar at Mamre at Hebron. See 1. Mos. 12/7+8 above.

039 1. Mos. 14/6: "- - - in the hill country of Seir, as far as El Paran near the desert". Also this places Paran in Sinai, as Seir was an area east and south of Beersheba. And it fits exactly the Bible's information which places Hagar and Ishmael in this region, and not in Faran/Paran near the very far off Mecca, like Muslims claim (without documentation, like so often for Islam and Muslims).

As Muslims are so eager to reshape the geography here, we may add and specify: Because the name is rather similar to Faran (renamed to Paran, but according to our sources originally named Faran) near Mecca, and because the Bible tells Ishmael lived for a long time in Paran, Muslims want Paran to mean Faran near Mecca, so as to "document" that Ishmael lived in Mecca. But Paran is mentioned at least these places in the Bible: 1. Mos. 21/21, 4. Mos. 10/12, 4. Mos. 12/16, 4. Mos. 13/3, 4. Mos. 13/26, 5. Mos. 1/1, 1. Sam.25/1, 1. Kings 11/18, and there is no doubt from the different contexts that the Bible's Paran is in Sinai, and that there is not the slightest connection to the distant Arabia. It as mentioned is identical to what now is named Badiet et-Tin ("the Desert of Loneliness"), and lay south and east of the desert Shur, and south of the desert Sin (or Zin) in the inner parts of the Sinai Peninsula.

040 1. Mos. 15/18: "To your descendants I (Yahweh*) give this land - from the river (or wadi = steep sided river valley) of Egypt, to the great river, the Euphrates - - -". One more point to remember when Arabs claim they are descendants of Abraham: According to the Bible the god did not promise land for any of his descendants anywhere on the Arabian peninsula at all - and according once more to the Bible, Ishmael's descendants settled in the south-west of the area Yahweh here promised to Abraham, and became rulers there (1. Mos. 25/16). Isaac's descendants, included the Israelites and the Edomites (descendants of Esau) later settled in the middle. His other sons (not mentioned in the Quran) with his second wife Keturah (1. Mos. 52/1) - Zimran, Jokshan, Medan, Midian, Ishbak, and Shuah (1. Mos. 25/2) settled in the east (1. Mos. 25/6) and perhaps even reached the Euphrates like promised. But none is said to have settled in the south - in Arabia - a land not promised Abraham by Yahweh.

041 1. Mos. 16/16: Abraham was 86 years when Ishmael was born. As He was 100 when Isaac was born (1. Mos. 21/5), this means there were ca. 14 years between Ishmael and Isaac. This again may indicate that Ishmael was some 15 (maximum 16) years old when he and his mother Hagar was sent away, as 1. Mos. 21/8-14 indicates this happened the day after Isaac was weaned, and weaning in the old times took 1 - 2 years. He thus was not a little child any more.

042 1. Mos. 17/21: "But my (Yahweh's*) covenant I will establish with Isaac". There never in the Bible is mentioned even the possibility of a covenant between Yahweh and Ishmael or with Ishmael's descendants.

#043 1. Mos. 18/8: "While they ate - - -". According to the Bible, Abram/Abraham's visitors were Yahweh himself (1. Mos. 18/1, 18/10, 18/13, 18/17, 18/20, 18/22, 18/26, 18/30, 18/31, 18/33) and two angels (18/22 + 19/1). According to the Quran they were just angels, and did not want the food Abram/Abraham offered them, which frightened Abraham - they might be enemies (in the old times it was wise not to eat or drink anything when visiting an enemy - you could become poisoned). Not so in the Bible - they all ate. If this is true, it has some significance, as it shows that when they took on human bodies both Yahweh and angels could eat food. This in case shows that one of Muhammad's arguments for that Jesus was not the son of Yahweh - that he ate food and thus could not be the son of a god - is invalid. (Also in 1. Mos. 19/3 it is said that the angels ate.)

044 1. Mos. 18/20: "- - - sin - - -". Remember that what is sin in the Bible and what is sin in the Quran - and the other way around - may be widely different. This is one of the far more than 100% proofs for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god - if they had been, sin in the Bible and sin in the Quran had been more or less identical or at least very similar. (Muslims may try to explain this away by claiming that the Bible is falsified, but we remind you that both science and Islam strongly have proved that this claim is wrong.)

By the way: The same goes for words like righteous, just, right, good, bad, unjust, offence, wrong, crime, etc. They may cover very different meanings in the two books. Also Acts 3/14 is relevant here. The differences in the two books' moral etc. codes behind the differences in the meanings of such words, are strong proofs for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god.

045 1. Mos. 19/24: "Then the Lord (Yahweh*) rained down burning sulfur on Sodom and Gomorrah". In the Quran Allah rained down brimstones. (Some Muslims try to claim they came from a volcanic eruption, but stones made from clay never come from such eruptions. But sulfur can come from such one.)

046 1. Mos. 19/26: "But Lot's wife looked back (and thus disobeyed the angels' order*) and became a pillar of salt". In the Quran she is predestined to die because she was not a (good enough?) Muslim.

047 1. Mos. 18/20: "- - - sin - - -". Remember that what is sin in the Bible and what is sin in the Quran - and the other way around - may be widely different. This is one of the far more than 100% proofs for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god - if they had been, sin in the Bible and sin in the Quran had been more or less identical or at least very similar. (Muslims may try to explain this away by claiming that the Bible is falsified, but we remind you that both science and Islam strongly have proved that this claim is wrong.)

By the way: The same goes for words like righteous, just, right, good, bad, unjust, offence, wrong, crime, etc. They may cover very different meanings in the two books. Also Acts 3/14 is relevant here. The differences in the two books' moral etc. codes behind the differences in the meanings of such words, are strong proofs for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god.

#048 1. Mos. 20/12: "- - - she (Sarah - the wife of Abraham*) really is my (Abraham's*) sister, the daughter of my father though not of my mother - - -". Thus the man Muslims claim as their forefather, was married to his own half-sister, something which is strictly prohibited in the Quran - and thus in Abraham's claimed (according to Islam) similar copy of "the Mother of the Book". He thus was a horrible sinner, as sex with one's sister is a horrible sin in the Quran.

049 1. Mos. 21/12: "- - - it is through Isaac your offspring will be reckoned - - -". Today it is possible to see that this is the truth, as - if the old books are reliable concerning this - it is from him the rather special nation - the Jews - derive, whereas over the centuries and millennia the descendants of his other children were dispersed and mixed up with other tribes and nations, and disappeared as separate nations. In spite of the Arab's and Muhammad's strong, but never proved claims - claims are cheap, proofs are reliable - it is highly likely that this is what happened also to Ishmael's descendants "near the border of Egypt".

050 1. Mos. 21/14: After Hagar and her son Ishmael was sent away, "She went on her way and wandered in the desert of Beersheba". This is in the south of what is now Israel, many hundred miles and even more kilometers north and west of the desert valley where Mecca later came, where the Quran claims this happened - and when this was written may be around 800 BC, there was no reason not to tell the truth about this. This also fits with the information in 1. Mos. 20/1 that Abraham now had moved into the Negev region (the area south of Be'ersheba). Muslims tend to "explain" - as normal without any proofs - this with that all desert south of Beersheba was called the desert of Beersheba. Science has found no indication for that this claim is true. Also take a look at the map, find Beersheba in south Israel, and see how likely it is that the Arab Desert all the way down to Yemen ("all desert south of Beersheba") ever was named the Desert of Beersheba, this even more so as these deserts long since had their separate names. Islam will have to bring strong proofs to be believed on this point. This on top of the fact that already in 1. Mos. 21/21 we meet them in a named place in "the desert south of Beersheba" - - - in spite of the Muslim claim just above, that name itself of the area was not the Desert of Beersheba, but the Desert of Paran, which was a desert lying south of Beersheba (judging from the Bible the name Beersheba may not even have existed by then - see 1. Mos. 21/31 - this happened after Hagar and Ishmael had been sent away). There also was the Desert of Sin (or Zin), the Desert of Shur, etc. - Shur in the west, Sin in the middle, Paran in the (south-)east, and the Desert of Sinai in the south. (We may add that Muslims try to connect the name Paran to Arabia - to a place which according to our sources really had the name Faran.)

One small remark concerning Hagar: You will meet Muslims claiming she was an Arab. But the only source for information about this, as her origin is not mentioned in the Quran, is the Bible, which says she was from Egypt (1. Mos. 16/1). Nowadays Egyptians often reckon themselves to be Arabs. That was not the case at the time of Abraham.

051 1. Mos. 21/21: "While he (Ishmael) was living in the Desert of Paran, his mother got him a wife from Egypt". The Desert of Paran (also called the Wilderness of Paran) is in the east part of the Sinai peninsula, southeast of the Wilderness (or Desert) of Shur and Sin and west of Arabah. This also fits 1. Mos. 25/18 which tells that his sons/descendants settled "in the area from Havilah to Shur, near the border of Egypt (Shur was west of Paran and bordered northeast Egypt somewhere in the region where you today find the Suez Canal). Moses and his Israelites arrived in the Desert of Paran. The name today is Hadith et-Tin (= the Desert of the Wanderings - the Israelites spent part of their 40 years here). It also was from Kadesh in the northern part of Paran Moses sent the 12 scouts into Israel. We mention, though, that for Muslims it is essential to move Paran to the area of Mecca, because if not the Quran cannot be true on several/many essential points. We have only found Muslim scholars/scientists advocating this claim. We have found no scholars or scientists with an open mind for the question who place any of these places - included Paran - in Arabia.

As Muslims are so eager to reshape the geography here, we may add and specify: Because the name is rather similar to Faran (renamed to Paran, but according to our sources originally named Faran) near Mecca, and because the Bible tells Ishmael lived for a long time in Paran, Muslims want Paran to mean Faran near Mecca, so as to "document" that Ishmael lived in Mecca. But Paran is mentioned at least these places in the Bible: 1. Mos. 21/21, 4. Mos. 10/12, 4. Mos. 12/16, 4. Mos. 13/3, 4. Mos. 13/26, 5. Mos. 1/1, 1. Sam.25/1, 1. Kings 11/18, and there is no doubt from the different contexts that the Bible's Paran is in Sinai, and that there is not the slightest connection to the distant Arabia. It as mentioned is identical to what now is named Badiet et-Tin ("the Desert of Loneliness"), and lay south and east of the desert Shur, and south of the desert Sin (or Zin) in the inner parts of the Sinai Peninsula.

052 1. Mos. 21/34: "And Abraham stayed in the land of the Philistines for a long time". As mentioned the Bible gives a rough record of Abraham's movement. He is never reported to go into the Arabian peninsula. F.x. the Philistines lived in the west of what is now the southern part of Israel, near the Mediterranean Sea. Far from what became Mecca, a point which here has extra interest, as 1. Mos. 21/21-22 indicates that this was at the time when Ishmael was a growing youth (he was something like 14 or 15 when Abraham sent him and his mother away) and later a young man and around the time he married - a possible time for the Quran's claim that Abraham and Ishmael built the Kabah in Arabia, or at least the time when the Quran claims Ishmael lived in what was to become Mecca, and Abraham several times visited him there. But according to the Bible here Ishmael lived in Paran in Sinai and his descendants settled even further west, near the border of Egypt.

053 1. Mos. 22/1-2: "Some time later (than the agreement with Abimelech, which happened when Ishmael lived in the Desert of Paran and his mother Hagar got a wife for him from Egypt - 1. Mos. 21/21-22*) God/Yahweh tested Abraham. - - - 'Take your son, your only son, Isaac (the name is mentioned 4 times in this chapter) - - -'". Yahweh ordered him to sacrifice "his only son, Isaac- - -". Muslims here omit the fact that the Bible clearly tells that this happened a good time after Ishmael and his mother were sent away from the camp of Abraham, and the fact that the Bible names Isaac, but cherry-pick the words "your only son", and says that this proves the son Abraham was ordered to sacrifice, was Ishmael, because only Ishmael once was Abraham's only son - skipping the words in the same connection making this claim impossible, as this according to the same book (1. Mos.) they use as a witness, tells that the claim was and is impossible as it clearly happened well after Isaac was born and named, and even later - and thus that Ishmael was not any more the only son. (To try to make such a claim is an honest thing if they could produce proofs for it. It is highly dishonest, though, to make strong claims from cherry-picked words, without ever mentioning the fact that other words in the same text make the claim impossible. This kind of argumentation you frequently meet from Muslims and - like here - even from Islam itself/its scholars. Dishonesty is accepted in Islam in a number of cases, included when it comes to defending or promoting the religion.) The explanation for the expression "your only son" must be looked for other places. F.x. Isaac was his only remaining son. Or - like 1. Mos. 25/18 perhaps indicates - there was so much (understandable) aggression involved that Ishmael was not really the son of Abraham any more. Or Ishmael was out of the line leading on to the future of Israel, and thus did not count. Or simply as Ishmael was sent away, he was dismissed as the son of Abraham and only Isaac remained. There are a number of possible explanations. But the one claim which is not possible, is that it happened before Isaac was born, and it thus was Ishmael who was about to be sacrificed, as the Bible very clearly tells it was a good time after Isaac was born.

AN OVERVIEW OVER ISHMAEL/ISAAC/ABRAHAM TESTED:

1. Abraham was 86 years when Ishmael was born. (1. Mos. 16/16).

2. Abraham was 100 years - and Ishmael some 14 - when Isaac was born (1. Mos. 21/5). Ishmael is no longer Abraham's only son.

3. Isaac grew and was weaned. In the old times they were not too fast on weaning. Say roughly at least a year. Abraham 101 years, Ishmael 15, Isaac 1 year. Some unspecified time after this Hagar and Ishmael are sent away from Abraham's camp. Ishmael is 15 - 16 years. (1. Mos. 21/8-14) - Isaac now becomes Abraham's only son, at least to all practical purposes.

4. Ishmael grows up - he already nearly was an adult for those times when he left his father - and marries. Judging from what we know about those times, he may have married somewhere between 18 and 25 years old. Isaac would then have been between 4 and 11 years. (1. Mos. 21/20-21).

5. "At that time (around the wedding time of Ishmael*)- - -" - the Treaty of Beersheba was made - around the time Ishmael married. (1. Mos. 21/21-24).

6. "Some time later - - -". = some time after the Treaty of Beersheba, Abraham was asked to sacrifice his son. (1. Mos. 22/1-2. At this time Ishmael was an adult and living hundreds of miles away - Isaac to all practical purposes was Abraham's only son. (And also his only legitimate son.)

7. "Abraham took the wood for the burnt offering and placed it on his son Isaac - - -". It takes some wood to burn a body, even the body of a child. Isaac must have been at least some 10 - 14 years old (and Ishmael 24 - 28 + married and as said hundreds of miles to the south-west).

8. And not to forget that Isaac's name is mentioned 4 times during the preparation for the sacrifice (1. Mos. 22/2 and 22/3, 22/6, and 22/9), and two places it is mentioned that his sacrifice was a boy (1. Mos. 22/3 and 22/12), whereas Ishmael at that time was a man.

If the Bible is not way off the truth, there is no chance Ishmael could have been the intended sacrifice.

## And the sinister fact is that lost of Muslim scholars know this. The Quran for one thing is so closely connected to "Biblical" stories, that to understand the Quran in dept, they have to know the Bible at least to some extent. For another in order to attack the Bible, they have to study it to find what they think are the good arguments for the Quran or against the Bible - you do not f.x. make a list like "101 mistakes in the Bible" (this list exists on the net) from playing poker.

## And all the same not one of them tells his listeners or readers what is in our overview just above, and which anyone studying the Bible has got to see.

054 1. Mos. 22/12: "- - - your (Abraham's*) only son - - -". See 1. Mos. 22/1-2 above.

055 1. Mos. 22/16: "- - - your (Abraham's*) only son - - -". See 1. Mos. 22/1-2 above.

056 1. Mos. 23/2: "She (Sarah*) died at Kiriath Arba (that is Hebron) in the land of Canaan - - -". Once more a specification of where Abraham lived. Far from Arabia and Mecca.

057 1. Mos. 23/19a: "- - - Abraham buried his wife Sarah in the cave - - -". He did not build anything for his dead wife. The biggest things the Bible ever mentions Abraham ever built, were a few altars. All the same the Quran claims he built a large mosque in a desert valley 2 - 3 weeks brisk walk (some 600 miles/1ooo km) from where he lived - much more when bringing his flocks of animals (but who takes big flocks of animals through harsh desert without a heavy reason? - and except for camels, how many animals would survive such a trip through land with little of no food and even less water?).

As for the probability for that Abraham built the Kabah (claims about that Adam and later Noah built earlier versions, we do not bother to comment on); take a look on what the Bible mentions of "buildings" up to long after the Jews had finished being just primitive nomads (and f.x. Solomon built his temple). F.x.: 1. Mos. 12/7 - 12/8 - 13/18 - 23/19a - 26/25 - 33/20, 2. Mos. 25/29 - 32/5, Jos. 8/30 - 22/10, Jud. 6/24, 2. Sam. 24/25. Not one single permanent house is mentions at all. A big stone temple/mosque had been such an outstanding deed, and of such an outstanding religious value that there is no chance that it had been omitted in the texts if it had been true.

058 1. Mos. 23/19b: "(Sarah was buried) near Mamre (which is at Hebron) in the land of Canaan". See 1. Mos. 23/2 just above. As far as we can find, with the exception of the time Abraham lived in Negev and in the Sinai peninsula, Mamre is the closest Abraham ever came Arabia and Mecca, except perhaps - perhaps - on the expedition to rescue Lot (1. Mos. 14/14-16).

059 1. Mos. 25/1: "Abraham took another wife (after Sarah's death*), whose name was Keturah. She bore him (6 sons*)". This is not at all mentioned in the Quran. Most likely Muhammad did not know about it - but a god had known. These sons were sent to the east (1. Mos. 25/6), and if Muhammad had chosen one of these instead of Ishmael for a forefather for the Arabs, his claim might have been stronger - Ishmael pretty sure never visited Arabia.

060 1. Mos. 25/5a: "Abraham left everything he owned to Isaac - - -". This means that if Abraham had built the Kabah, it would belong to Isaac. But such a building or even ownership to anything at all in Arabia, is never mentioned anywhere in the Bible, neither connected to Abraham, not to Isaac, nor to Isaac's sons, nor to any of his later descendants. Actually the only piece of land the Bible mentions Abraham ever owned, was the field with the cave where he buried Sarah. (If he had had any connection to a very holy place in Arabia, and owned a holy building there, the logical thing would be to bring his dead wife there and bury her in the holy ground - Abraham had spent time in Egypt (1. Mos. 12/10) and knew preservation of the body was possible for such a trip. But Abraham is never mentioned in any kind of connection to Arabia in the Bible. Whenever it is mentioned places where he lived, it always is further west and/or further north, and far from halfway down the Arabian peninsula where Mecca later was founded.

061 1. Mos. 25/5b: "But while he (Abraham*) was still living, he gave gifts to the sons of his concubines - - -". There are named only 3 women connected to Abraham: His wives Sarah and later Keturah, and Hagar. Hagar is not indicated to be his concubine, but only Sarah's maidservant, Hagar, whom Sarah asked him to make pregnant as Sarah herself was barren and in the old times children was very essential for a reasonably ok life when you grew old. Here the word "concubines" is in plural, so no matter if Hagar is included or not, there must have been more ones - and more children than the ones named in the Bible and not even mentioned in the Quran.

062 1. Mos. 25/5c: "- - - and he (Abraham*) sent them (his other sons*) away from his son Isaac to the land of the east". As it is clear Ishmael lived - and lived on - in Paran and later near the border of Egypt, this cannot have included him. And for the case someone will claim that someone of Abraham's other children were sent to the site of the future Mecca: Mecca is to the (far) south, not to the east. If you look at the map, you will see that the logical places when going east, was to the Persia/Mesopotamia area.(One possibility is that he sent them to Ur of the Chaldeans and his family - f.x. his brother Nahor - there.) This also would be in accordance with Yahweh's promise that Abrahams descendants should get land "from the river of Egypt to - - - the Euphrates" (1. Mos. 15/18) - Ishmael to the south-west, Isaac in the middle, the other sons east perhaps as far as Euphrates.

063 1. Mos. 25/16: "These (the ones named in the 2 previous verses*) were the sons of Ishmael, and these are the names of the twelve tribal rulers - - -". Yahweh had promised that Ishmael's descendants should become mighty men, and in the area and culture where they lived, the tribal rulers were the mightiest of all, and Yahweh made them all tribal rulers - facts Muslims never mention (they wants the promise to refer to the power of Islam some 2500 - 3ooo years later, which in case had been of little comfort to his mother Hagar, to whom Yahweh gave the promise.

064 1. Mos.25/18: "His (Ishmael's*) descendants settled in the area from Havila to Shur (to the east of northern Egypt*), near the border of Egypt, as you go towards Asshur". The fact that this is clearly said in the Bible, never is mentioned by Muslims. The same goes for any other information mentioned in the Bible not corresponding to what they want to believe. The Bible always tells the truth, they claim, whenever it says something they want to believe, or something which can be twisted into something they want to believe. In all other cases it is falsified, they claim. This in spite of that there for one thing was no reason for falsifying Muhammad out of the Bible up to more than 1ooo years before Muhammad was even born, and for another that both science and Islam thoroughly has proved the Bible is not falsified - some mistakes, yes, falsification no. (The best proof for this is Islam's silence when it comes to proved falsifications in the Bible. Islam had told about it in very big letters and in university textbooks and in all media. There are no such claims.)

065 1. Mos. 25/24: "- - - Esau - - -". Esau hardly is mentioned in the Quran. But beware that he also was named Edom (= red) and the Edomites were his descendants. You meet them repeatedly in the Bible, and they often were enemies to the descendants of Esau's brother Jacob - later named the Jews. One of the smaller differences between the Bible and the Quran.

#But a small curiosa: According to our information the Arab version of the name Esau is Isa. This name Muhammad used for Jesus, which is Greek for the Hebrew name Joshua - the corresponding Arab version of which is Yushuwa (the spelling may differ a little). If this is correct, Islam's 3. or 4. most central prophet (after Muhammad, Abraham, and perhaps Moses) is Esau, not Jesus. (Muhammad always talked about Isa, not about Yushuwa. No god had made such a silly mistake.)

066 1. Mos. 26/4: "- - - through your (Isaac's*) offspring all nations on earth will be blessed - - ". For one thing see 12/3 above. For another note that here the promise to Abraham that it was through Isaac his descendants should be counted, is confirmed. Through Isaac, not trough Ishmael (and besides it is extremely unlikely that Muhammad in Mecca and the Arabs really were descendants of people who settled on the border of Egypt and there disappeared from the story and from history - likely integrated among the local population over the generations).

If the nations were to be blessed through the line of Isaac, it may mean something that neither Ishmael nor Muhammad was in that line - but Jesus was.

067 1. Mos. 26/25: "Isaac built an altar there - - -". The Bible still reckons that building an altar was such a major thing, that it was worth mentioning it in the book. But it never mentions that these nomads ever built anything bigger, not even that one of them built a very big holy temple in an empty desert valley far down in Arabia - yes, does not ever mention that any of them even visited that peninsula at all.

As for the probability for that Abraham built the Kabah (claims about that Adam and later Noah built earlier versions, we do not bother to comment on); take a look on what the Bible mentions of "buildings" up to long after the Jews had finished being just primitive nomads (and f.x. Solomon built his temple). F.x.: 1. Mos. 12/7 - 12/8 - 13/18 - 23/19a - 26/25 - 33/20, 2. Mos. 25/29 - 32/5, Jos. 8/30 - 22/10, Jud. 6/24, 2. Sam. 24/25. Not one single permanent house is mentions at all. A big stone temple/mosque had been such an outstanding deed, and of such an outstanding religious value that there is no chance that it had been omitted in the texts if it had been true.

068 1. Mos. 28/9: "- - - he (Esau*) went to Ishmael and married Mahalath - - - daughter of Ishmael son of Abraham - - -". Esau also was called Edom and his descendants were called Edomites. They had a tendency to be negative to the Israelites, and this may - may - have been some of the reason why this negative tendency started. Esau according to the Bible was negative to his brother Jacob (and honestly with a reason - though he must take some blame himself), and now he took a wife whose family were strongly negative to the "proto-Israelites". Also note that it is said nothing about that he had to travel far to find this wife - unlike what is said about his brother Jacob. (Ishmael did not live too far off - how far or close depends on where the nomad Isaac (their father) was with his flocks and his family when this happened. If he f.x. was in the land of the Philistines, with whom he had good connections, or in Sinai, the distance to Ishmael's area "from Havilah to Shur, near the border of Egypt, the distance was not very far for Esau - Shur was just south of the land of the Philistines.)

#069 1. Mos. 28/14: "All peoples on earth will be blessed through you (Jacob*) and your offspring". See 1. Mos. 12/3 and 26/4 above. A new confirmation of the statement Abraham and Isaac had got, and for that it is for all peoples of the Earth, from Yahweh. (Muslims often claim that Yahweh's/Jesus' teaching only was for the Jews.)

070 1. Mos. 29/28: "- - - then Laban gave him (Jacob*) his daughter Rachel to be his wife (in addition to Leah*)". Leah and Rachel were sisters. Muslims are not permitted to be married to two sisters at the same time. All the same Jacob did so - and in spite of being a Muslim prophet according to Islam. But this means that either Jacob was not a Muslim, or Allah does not mind his own rules too much when picking his prophets.

071 1. Mos. 29/35: "- - - Judah - - -". This son of Jacob (the last of the 3 patriarchs of the Jews) gave name to the Judah tribe (his descendants), which later gave name to the southern Jewish country - Judah - after it was split in two after the death of King Solomon (the northern country was named Israel - the name Jacob was given by Yahweh). And finally from the name of the southern country, the name for the Israelites - Jews - came.

#072 1. Mos. 31/19+30+32: "- - - (household*) gods (=idols) - - -". Handmade idols were not themselves gods - except perhaps in the most primitive cultures - but represented a god. F.x. the infamous golden calf of Moses' Israelites f.x. really was a symbol for the (Egyptian) holy ox Apis, which again was believed to be a manifestation of one of the Egyptian main gods, Ptah. Thus the main thing was not the idol, but the belief existing in the brain of the believers. This - that the belief was/is the main thing - should go also for idols existing only in the brains and hearts of the believers, which is the likely reality for Allah, as the only source for information or "information" about him, is a book not from any god and told by a man with very doubtful moral and reliability, but with much to gain from making people believe in his new religion, a point strengthened by the fact that Allah never and no place has manifested himself in any provable way. The Quran never mentions that a made up god just is a made up god no matter if he is a mental human creation and idol or a physical such one. In religion it is what is in your brain and heart which counts and decides - saves you or condemns you. And it is very likely Allah just was and is a mental idol.

073 1. Mos. 31/36: "- - - sin - - -". Remember that what is sin in the Bible and what is sin in the Quran - and the other way around - may be widely different. This is one of the far more than 100% proofs for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god - if they had been, sin in the Bible and sin in the Quran had been more or less identical or at least very similar. (Muslims may try to explain this away by claiming that the Bible is falsified, but we remind you that both science and Islam strongly have proved that this claim is wrong.)

By the way: The same goes for words like righteous, just, right, good, bad, unjust, offence, wrong, crime, etc. They may cover very different meanings in the two books. Also Acts 3/14 is relevant here. The differences in the two books' moral etc. codes behind the differences in the meanings of such words, are strong proofs for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god.

074 1. Mos. 32/28: "Your name will no longer be Jacob, but Israel, because you have struggled with God/Yahweh and with men and have overcome". This is the origin of the name Israel (which means "he struggles with God/Yahweh - the two last letters - "el" - was a very old name for Yahweh, and you meet it at in some names in the Bible).

075 1. Mos. 33/20: "There he (Jacob*) set up an altar - - -". The Bible mentions when altars are built, but never a big building like f.x. the Kabah, which Muhammad/the Quran claims Abraham built. It also is noteworthy that during all the story of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and the sons of Jacob, and even Moses neither Arabia, nor Mecca, nor a mosque or temple like the Kabah, nor a trip or pilgrimage there - not even a wish for such - is ever mentioned. Most strange if Yahweh and Allah had been the same god and Mecca the most holy place on Earth.

As for the probability for that Abraham built the Kabah (claims about that Adam and later Noah built earlier versions, we do not bother to comment on); take a look on what the Bible mentions of "buildings" up to long after the Jews had finished being just primitive nomads (and f.x. Solomon built his temple). F.x.: 1. Mos. 12/7 - 12/8 - 13/18 - 23/19a - 26/25 - 33/20, 2. Mos. 25/29 - 32/5, Jos. 8/30 - 22/10, Jud. 6/24, 2. Sam. 24/25. Not one single permanent house is mentions at all. A big stone temple/mosque had been such an outstanding deed, and of such an outstanding religious value that there is no chance that it had been omitted in the texts if it had been true. And even more impossible as the chances for that Abraham or Ishmael ever even visited that old, dry desert valley is infinitesimal or less.

076 1. Mos. 35/1+3+7: "- - - build an altar - - -". See 1. Mos. 33/20 just above.

###077 1. Mos. 37/2: "Joseph, a young man of seventeen - - -". His age is not given in the Quran, and you may meet different guessing and claims about his age.

Some small facts about Joseph: According to the Bible he was 17 - 18 when he was sold to Egypt. He was the great grandson of Abraham. Abraham according to science lived sometime around 2ooo - 1800 BC, and was old (100 years according to 1. Mos. 21/5), when Isaac, Joseph's grandfather was born. Isaac was 60 when Jacob - Joseph's father - was born (1. Mos. 25/26). It is not said how old Jacob was when Joseph was born, but he was the second youngest of Jacob's sons. 1. Mos. 37/3 also tells that Jacob was old when Joseph was born. Science thinks he lived around 1700 or 1600 BC. He according to 1. Mos. 50/22 became 110 years old.

There exists no scientific proof for that Joseph ever lived. But there exist two tantalizing facts: 1): Ice cores from the glaciers of Mt. Kilimanjaro - the area where the Nile starts - show that during those years there was a severe draught - a draught which may correspond to the 7 dry years in the Bible. 2): In Egypt there still is a waterway built sometime around the time of Joseph, to bring water from the Nile to large farming areas in years with low flood in the river. It still is named Bahr Yusuf = Joseph's Waterway. Was it built by a prime minister or something named Joseph during or after that terrible draught? (Source for both facts: BBC).

One more point: The Bible tells Joseph was sold for 20 Shekels of silver (1. Mos. 37/28). Science tells this was a reasonable price for a young male slave at that time. The Quran, however, says he was sold "for a miserable price - for a few dirhams - - -". Exact sum is not given, but "a miserable price".

But there is an extra point her: This happened around 1700 BC - some 1ooo years before the first coin anywhere in the world was minted - coins and dirham’s simply did not exist (just to mention it: Shekel was not a coin, but a weight unit = 11.34 grams - 20 Shekel = ca. 8oz/227g.

And there even is something more: The very first dirham was minted in 642 AD (before that they used the Greek drachma - which likely gave name to dirham via the Persian pronunciation "drahm"). This was 10 years after Muhammad died and 21 years after surah 12 was published. Muhammad cannot have used this word in 621 AD when he published this surah. For one thing the word did not exist, and for another even if he had used such a word, nobody had understood what he was talking about. What is the truth about the making of this verse?

One more mistake in the Quran.

078 1. Mos. 37/13: "- - - Israel (Jacob*) said to Joseph, 'As you know, your brothers are grazing the flocks near Shechem. Come, I am going to send you to them". In the Bible the idea that Joseph should visit his brothers (to bring news about them to his father), came from his father, Jacob. In the Quran, the idea comes from his brothers, who cheat their father, into letting him go together with them. According to normal evaluation for historical scriptures, the Bible here will be evaluated as the likely most reliable, as it for one thing is written may be 1400 years nearer to what perhaps happened than the Quran (perhaps around 800 BC vs. the Quran around 621 AD for the surah about Joseph), and for another that the Quran provably and easy to see is full of mistaken facts, etc. (also the Bible have mistakes, but far fewer, even though it has much more text - about 4 - 5 times as much, as the Quran is a little smaller than NT). Islam will have to prove their version is correct. (They normally "prove" anything in the Quran with claims that it is from a god, but no god ever was involved in a book that full of mistakes, etc. Real proofs are necessary.)

079 1. Mos. 37/25: "- - - a caravan of Ishmaelites - - -". The Quran does not mention that Ishmaelites - close relatives of Joseph (remember that Ishmael was the brother of Joseph's grandfather) bought him and sold him as a slave in Egypt. A nice deed by good Muslims? (The few Muslims aware of this will say either that it was a hard time - but Islam claims to be the religion of a good god. Or that it is one of the falsified points in the Bible - but the Bible is proved not falsified. Or that his brothers were worse - but no matter how bad others are, this does not make you good, and no matter what wrongs you find in the Bible, it will correct not one mistake or other wrong in the Quran.

080 1. Mos. 37/28a: "- - - the Medianite merchants - - -". The Ishmaelites mentioned here, may have moved to Midian, or they were together with (other) merchants from Midian, or they were working out of Midian, or in some other way connected to Midian or Midianites.

081 1. Mos. 37/28b: "- - - the Ishmaelites - - -". See 37/25 just above.

082 1. Mos. 37/33: "(Jacob said:*) 'Some ferocious animal has devoured him (Joseph*). Joseph has surely been torn to pieces'". See 42/36 below.

083 1. Mos. 37/36a: "- - - the Midianites - - -". See 37/28a above.

084 1. Mos. 37/36b: "(Joseph was sold to*) Potiphar, one of Pharaoh’s officials, the captain of the guard". The Quran names the buyer Aziz. But as Aziz means "the great one" or something similar, it may refer to his high standing, and not be meant as a proper name.

085 1. Mos. 39/1a: "- - - Potiphar - - -". See 37/36 just above.

086 1. Mos. 39/1b: "- - - Ishmaelites - - -". See 37/35 above.

087 1. Mos. 39/12: "She (the wife of Potiphar*) caught him (Joseph*) by his cloak and said, 'Come to bed with me!' But he left his cloak in her hand and ran out of the house”. In the Quran she grabs him by the back of his shirt, and tears it as he runs away.

088 1. Mos. 39/16-20: Potiphar’s wife accuses Joseph. She has Joseph's coat, but a coat at best is an indication in such a situation, not a proof. What happen is that Potiphar believes his wife mainly on her word, and puts Joseph in prison. In the Quran there is a small drama based on the claim that she did tear Joseph's shirt. The claim that she had torn his shirt behind, is said to be a proof for that the wife was the aggressor, and Joseph was freed from suspicion. One has to be quite naive to rely on a tear in the back of a shirt as a proof for that she was the aggressor - in a fight much can happen. An indication, but no proof. But as Muhammad claimed it was a proof, Joseph was free from suspicion. Another question is: From where did Muhammad get the story about the tear in the skirt, etc.? It is not in the Bible, and as a book as full of errors like the Quran is from any god like Islam claims, there are no other perhaps reliable sources.

089 1. Mos. 39/19-20: "(Potiphar believed his wife and*) burned with anger. Joseph's master (Potiphar*) took him and put him in prison - - -". Also in the Quran Joseph is put in prison, but without any logical reason, as according to the Quran he already was proved not guilty. Not good "crime" literature - but then the Quran on too many points neither is good literature, nor logical. But the imprisonment of Joseph was necessary for the rest of the story, even though Muhammad was unable to find any logical reason for the imprisonment.

090 1. Mos. 41/14: "So Pharaoh sent for Joseph, and he was quickly brought from the dungeon. When he had shaved and changed his clothes, he came before Pharaoh". This in contrast to in the Quran, where there is a long story first, because Joseph does not want to be released, unless he is proved not guilty first - highly illogical as he according to the Quran was proved not guilty already before he was put in prison. And also illogical for another reason: A pharaoh hardly would accept to be kept waiting just because of a fixed idea from a lowly prisoner.

091 1. Mos. 41/46: "Joseph was thirty years old when he entered the service of Pharaoh king of Egypt (his age in nowhere mentioned in the Quran). Which means he was some 37 when the famine years started, and thus 37 or 38 when his brothers made their first trip to Egypt to by grain/food.

092 1. Mos. 42/22: "- - - sin - - -". Remember that what is sin in the Bible and what is sin in the Quran - and the other way around - may be widely different. This is one of the far more than 100% proofs for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god - if they had been, sin in the Bible and sin in the Quran had been more or less identical or at least very similar. (Muslims may try to explain this away by claiming that the Bible is falsified, but we remind you that both science and Islam strongly have proved that this claim is wrong.)

By the way: The same goes for words like righteous, just, right, good, bad, unjust, offence, wrong, crime, etc. They may cover very different meanings in the two books. Also Acts 3/14 is relevant here. The differences in the two books' moral etc. codes behind the differences in the meanings of such words, are strong proofs for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god.

093 1. Mos. 42/24: "He (Joseph*) had Simeon (one of Joseph's brothers*) taken from them (the others of Joseph's brothers being present*) and bound before their eyes". In the Quran none of them had to stay behind on the first trip. The story of Joseph and his brothers roughly is the same in the two books, but many details are different. From where did Muhammad get these details?

094 1. Mos. 42/26: "- - - they (Joseph's brothers*) loaded their grain on their donkeys - - -". In the Quran it is camels. A minor difference, but a fact difference.

095 1. Mos. 42/36: "(Jacob said*) 'Joseph is no more - - -". In the Bible Jacob believes his son Joseph is dead. In the Quran the wise prophet Jacob thinks he is alive (in the Bible Jacob/Israel is one of the 3 Jewish patriarchs, and is neither named nor treated like a prophet, though he no doubt had contact with Yahweh, according to that book).

096 1. Mos. 42/38: "Your brother (Joseph*) is dead". See 1. Mos. 42/36 just above.

097 1. Mos. 44/2: "Then put my (Joseph's*) cup, the silver one, in the mouth of the youngest one's (Benjamin's*) sack - - -". In the Quran it is the cup of the Pharaoh. We must admit we reacted to that claim even the first time we read the Quran - how could Benjamin had got hold of that one? As they dined in the house of Joseph, it is easy to understand how he could get hold of Joseph's cup, but the Pharaoh's!?"

098 1. Mos. 44/28: Jacob is quoted to have said "He (Joseph*) has surely been torn to pieces". See 42/36 +38 above.

099 1. Mos. 44/25: "So they (Joseph's brothers*) went up out of Egypt and came to their father Jacob in the land of Canaan". This is all which is said about their return trip. In the Quran there is a story about Joseph sending his skirt, and Jacob smelling that Joseph was alive. From where did Muhammad get that storey?.

100 1. Mos. 45/26: "They (Jacob's sons*) told him (Jacob*), 'Joseph is still alive'. - - - Jacob was stunned. He did not believe them." A strong contradiction to the Quran, which tells that Jacob all the time had hoped or believed Joseph was alive.

101 1. Mos. 50/17: "- - - sins - - -". Remember that what is sin in the Bible and what is sin in the Quran - and the other way around - may be widely different. This is one of the far more than 100% proofs for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god - if they had been, sin in the Bible and sin in the Quran had been more or less identical or at least very similar. (Muslims may try to explain this away by claiming that the Bible is falsified, but we remind you that both science and Islam strongly have proved that this claim is wrong.)

By the way: The same goes for words like righteous, just, right, good, bad, unjust, offence, wrong, crime, etc. They may cover very different meanings in the two books. Also Acts 3/14 is relevant here. The differences in the two books' moral etc. codes behind the differences in the meanings of such words, are strong proofs for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god.

subtotal: 101 remarks.

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This work was uploaded with assistance from M. A. Khan, the author of Islamic Jihad: A Legacy of Forced Conversion, Imperialism and Slavery, and the editor of islam-watch.org website.