Humans, Other Beings in/Relevant to the Quran, Part 27



Merneptah is not named in the Quran (but neither is Ramses II - the Quran often is short on even essential details.)

Wemay add that this name is a solid proof for that for one thing th pharaoh was not "the only god the pharaoh knew", and neither was a Muslim or for that kase believing in the Jewisn Yahweh. Merneptah = Merne-Ptah, and the second part of the name is the name of one of the main Egyptian gods, Ptah.

Merneptah was the 13. son of Pharaoh Ramses II. He was some 60 years old when he became Pharaoh - and he became pharaoh because all his older brothers by then were dead. Merneptah ruled for some 10 years (1213 -1203 BC).

During his reign the name Israel is mentioned for the first time in known history - as far as we know - outside religious sources - on a stone stele likely from 1207 BC. This shows a connection between the Jews and Egypt at that time.

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001 7/105d: One small "en passent" here as Muslims do not like the timing of the Exodus, and as M. Yusuf Ali makes a comment (in A1073 to this verse) "(The Jews stayed in Egypt*) perhaps two to four centuries. (Renan allows only one century).": The Bible is very clear on how long time the Jews spent in Egypt: 430 Years, and there was no reason for the Jews to falsify this number, in addition to that in spite of Islam's claims no falsification is known in the Bible, mistakes yes, falsifications no (again: Guess if Islam had screamed about it if even one documented case had been found!). But as Ramses II did not drown, Islam needs to use an earlier pharaoh where one does not know how he died - f.x. Thothmes I (ca. 1540 BC) is mentioned. But Jacob - the patriarch who took the Jews to Egypt lived around 1800 BC (if he is not fiction), or to be exact: Abraham lived - if he is not fiction - around 2ooo - 1800 BC. Jacob was his grandson, and as Abraham was old when he got Isaac (the father of Jacob) it is realistic to say Jacob lived around 1800 or perhaps a bit later. Then it is not possible to use earlier pharaohs than Ramses II if the Jews stayed 430 years. A little twist is necessary in case - and voila!: Islam says (the mentioned YA comment 1073): "- - - Israel stayed there perhaps two to four centuries." Problem solved - without any source for the estimate given. May be the 430 years in the Bible is a falsification? (but in case why?) - the standard and easy "explanation" Muhammad always used.

And there is another point here you never hear Muslims mention: According to the Bible (1. Mos. 46/27) the Jews were 80 - 90 (70 + the wives of Jacob's sons) when they settled in Egypt. The same book mentions 2 - 3 places that when they left Egypt, they were 600ooo men = something like included women and children. It at least theoretically is quite possible for say 80 to become in 430 years - especially if other slaves joined them to get out from bondage. But it is in no way possible in 200 or 300 years (and 100 years is a joke), and even 400 may be unlikely - for a geometric curve like this is, one extra generation makes a big difference. Also this makes an exodus and a pharaoh around 1500 - 1600 BC like Islam likes to claim to get rid of Ramses II, impossible.

There are some scientists, though, who thinks Exodus happened a little later, under the son of Ramses II, Merneptah. But that in case as said means later and not before - and under another pharaoh we know did not drown.

002 26/23b: "- - - the Lord (intended to mean Allah*) and Cherisher of the Worlds (plural and wrong*) and the earth - - -". Strange as the Jews did not reckon their god to be for all and everything, only for the Jews (though a couple of places it is indicated also in OT that Yahweh is for the world). Islam will have to document that Moses said this to Ramses II (or perhaps - perhaps - to his successor Merneptah) - it is not in the Bible.

003 44/28: "- - - and We (Allah*) made other people inherit (the drowned Egyptians*) - - -". Wrong. There are no historical indications for that that not their own people inherited them - on the contrary, the reign of Ramses II was a stable period (and Ramses II's inheritor to the throne was his son Merneptah). But to claim that other people inherited them, is in line with Muhammad's often repeated claim about other cases where a people or a group of people disappeared - - - always because of punishment because of sins against Allah, according to Muhammad.

004 69/9a: "- - - Pharaoh (Ramses II) - - -". The only pharaohs mentioned in the Quran, are the two connected to Moses - one just mentioned in connection to the baby Moses being saved from the Nile, and the one connected to the Exodus all the other times. The one connected to the Exodus according to science, is Ramses II. As we know Ramses did not drown, Islam tries to claim that the Exodus was much earlier, under pharaohs we do not know how died. But for one thing numbers, etc. do not add up with an early Exodus, and for another science is little in doubt, and states pretty surely that if it ever happened, it happened around 1235 BC, which means under Ramses II (see f.x. Encyclopedia Britannica). (There are a few scientists who think Exodus happened a few years later, though, during the reign of the son if Ramses II, Merneptah - but later, not earlier like Islam wants it.)

005 79/17a: "- - - Pharaoh - - -". Always when the Quran talks about a Pharaoh, it is about the opponent of Moses, Pharaoh Ramses II. There is one exception only, and only indirectly: The baby Moses was picked up from the Nile by the wife of Pharaoh (in the Bible by his daughter - 2. Mos. 2/6). As according to the Bible this happened some 80 years before the Exodus, this pharaoh has got to be an earlier one. We may add that as we know Ramses II did not drown, it is normal for Islam/Muslim scholars to claim it was an earlier, but not specified pharaoh where we do not know the cause of his death. But science is in no doubt: If exodus took place, it was around 1235 BC = during the reign of Ramses II.

To complete the picture: There are a few scientists who believe Exodus happened - if it happened - not during the reign of Ramses II, but during the reign of his son and successor, Merneptah (also spelled Meremptah), but in that case Exodus happened even later than 1235 BC, and not earlier like Islam and Muslims want it to have happened (to place it under a pharaoh we do not know how died, and thus may have drowned - Merneptah ruled from 1213 BC to 1203 or 1202 BC, and he did not drown).

5 + 5386 = 5391 comments (+ basic comments/introductions).



The title "prophet" is a defined and heavy one. The title "messenger" also is defined - a person bringing one or more message(s) from one place/person to one or more other place(s)/person(s). A messenger does not even need to understand the message - he simply is a messenger boy.

Muhammad was well aware of that he was unable to make prophesies. Is this the reason why he mostly used the title "messenger"? - f.x. to avoid difficult questions about such facts, and about the fact that he (also according to himself and to the Quran - f.x. 3/144, 6/50, 10/20, 27/65, 72/26, 81/24) was unable to make prophesies?

The fact that the Quran several places states that Muhammad was unable to make prophesies, means that each time a Muslim claims Muhammad did make prophesies, that Muslim tells that the Quran is unreliable and lying about Muhammad's powers, and thus confirms the Quran's unreliability. Muslims do this pretty often.


Archeology seems to prove that Mecca was not settled until in the 4. century AD = a lot more than 2ooo years after Abraham. If they have found traces from an older settlement in Mecca, the report at least is not published, it seems. It further seems that the Kabah was not built until in the 5. century AD - written sources indicate that it originally was constructed by a man named Asa'd Abu Karb and then or later dedicated to the main god in Mecca, Hubal (HuBal, Huba'al - connected to the Ba'al religions known from the Bible?), but later al-Lah/Allah melted together with or took over from Hubal, and was the main god at the time of Muhammad.

Also see our Book K.

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001 2/37a: “Then learnt Adam from his Lord (Allah*) words of inspiration - - -“. Muhammad had his messages from Allah in the same way he claimed Adam got them - Muhammad's way of getting information must be normal? - after some time it at least might seem so for his followers, as all "messengers" got messages that way, at least according to Muhammad.

#002 2/61e: "- - - slaying His (Allah's*) Messengers without a just cause". Here is one of the many fundamental differences between The Bible - especially if you compare to NT and the new covenant - and the Quran: The Bible says "you shall not kill, whereas the Quran says "you shall not kill without a just cause" - and the Quran's moral codex which should regulate what is just and what is unjust, on top of this is pretty immoral at some points.

003 2/61g: "(The Jews*) went on - - - slaying His Messengers - - -". Similar things are said several places in the Quran. But read through the Bible and see how many - or few - of the named prophets who in reality were killed. (There also were unnamed prophets, but the percentage should be similar).

####004 2/76b: "- - - what Allah hath revealed to you - - -". This rather obscure sentence many Muslim scholar claims refer to the Islamic claim that Muhammad is mentioned in the Bible, here likely referred to 5. Mos. 18/15 and 18/18 (and conveniently omitting f.x. 18/1-2 and 18/20-21). The Quran clearly states that the claimed messenger Muhammad is mentioned on both the OT and in the Gospels (NT) and easy to find there, and then Islam HAS to find him there, because if not the Quran is wrong and a book from a god cannot be wrong - so if there is a mistake, this proves it is not from a god.

What is absolutely sure, is that Muhammad is not easy to find anywhere in the Bible - he is nowhere openly mentioned. Then Islam has to look for him in hidden places, in spite of the Quran's claim that he is easy to find both in OT and in NT. And the most frequent claim in OT is 5. Mos. 18/15 and 18/18, where Moses in a speech to Jews tells them that once there shall come a prophet like himself "from among their brothers". It is clear from the context that he meant from among the Jews, but Islam - the religion of the truth and the religion which claims you cannot understand the Quran unless you see the verses in context - drops the contexts and claims: "The Arabs are the brothers of the Jews - this is about Muhammad!"

We may add that they also drop a few other facts:

  1. The word "brother" or similar is used figuratively far more than 300 times in the Bible (at least 351 times according to our latest leafing through the book), and not one of these in connection to Arabs - practically always about members of a closed group (mainly Jews in OT - a few times including their recognized relatives the Edomites - and mainly fellow Christians in NT, though in NT a few times meaning all humanity as potential Christians).
  2. Of these the word is used at least 99 times in OT (see below in this comment) - also here mainly about members of a closed group: The Jews, sometimes included the Edomites as mentioned just above - and not a word about Arabs in such connections. Except for 1 reference to Lot (Abraham talking to his nephew - a very closed group) and 6 references to Edomites, which the Jews reckoned to be (distant) relatives as they were descendants of Esau, brother of Jacob and son of Isaac and thus inside the extended group, there are 5 exceptions from the rule that "brother" is about Jews in OT: The nomad Jacob talking to some shepherds (a closed group as he too was a shepherd and intended to mean "good friends"), 3 cases of one king talking to a fellow king (a very closed group) where the word means "good friends", and the sons of Ishmael who after all at that time were so closely related to the sons of Isaac, that they made a closed group (this relationship later was dismissed by the Jews for several reasons, the main of which may have been the enmity the sons of Ishmael showed towards their relatives, but also the fact that they were 3/4 Egyptian - both Ishmael's mother, Hagar (1. Mos. 16/1), and his wife (1. Mos. 20/20) were from Egypt - and thus not Jews, not to forget they were outside the covenant Yahweh made with Isaac which were to be the lasting covenant with Yahweh (1. Mos. 21/12), and also not to forget the fact that they lived so far off - near the border of Egypt (1. Mos. 25/18) - that the connection for natural reasons (strengthened by their enmity) was severed and forgotten. But not one word about the slightest relationship to Arabs - this even more so as it is highly unlikely the Arabs are descendants of Ishmael, as his descendants as mentioned settled near the border of Egypt (1. Mos. 25/18) and not in Arabia. (Also science tells "it is practically sure Abraham never came to Mecca" - and then Ishmael had no connection there). In addition modern DNA science has showed that what we call Arabs, was - and is - not a coherent tribe, but a mixture of people from neighboring countries who drifted into Arabia and its desert and settled there when the domestication of the camel around 2ooo BC made life for humans possible there, and later on. Before that only a few tribes lived in the coastal areas and hardly any in the desert in inland Arabia. (The coastal areas were settled in the same way may be around 7ooo BC). Plus there were f.x. all the females slaves who were forced to sex, and thus making children - and mixing up the blood even more. (To specify a little concerning the settlement of humans in Arabia: Modern humans may have entered the coastal area, river areas, etc. as early as 75ooo-50ooo years ago. The Neolithic period started around 6500 BC with a likely expansion of the population because of some agriculture, expansion of the use of domesticated animals, and trade. The interior of Arabia except for some oasis, etc. were settled much later and not until well after the camel was domesticated and more widely used. It is unclear where and when it was domesticated, but likely in south of the peninsula (Oman?) something like 2ooo BC (the number varies some), but it did not come into wide use until the 9. or 10. century BC. Thus the interior of Arabia was settled quite late.)
  3. 5. Mos. is a speech Moses made to and #####about his fellow Jews included some about their future. He used the words "brother/brothers" at least 31 times in his speech. With 2 exceptions (2/4 and 2/8) it is about members of the closed group the Jews - in spite of the wishful claims from Islam. Also the 2 exceptions are from a closed group including the Jews, but a somewhat extended one, as they include Edomites - descendants of Esau, the brother of Jacob (Esau also was called Edom). Esau was within the linage of the covenant which according to the Bible was promised by Yahweh, as he was the son of Isaac, through whom Yahweh according to the Bible said that linage should go (1. Mos. 21/12) and thus recognized as distant relatives of the Jews. Ishmael, from which the Arabs claim (most likely wrongly, as Ishmael and his descendants as mentioned settled near the border of Egypt and not in Arabia according to the Bible 1. Mos.25/18 - and in addition was outside this linage, and once more in addition placed themselves outside the group/family (1. Mos. 25/18)) they were and even more so became members of the outside. And not one word about the slightest relationship to Arabs in the entire speech or anywhere else in the entire Bible - and also nowhere in the Quran. And not least: According to modern DNA tests Arabs are a mixed race - descendants of people drifting into the peninsula from all directions when it was settled + from millions of imported slaves from all around, included lots and lots from Africa.
  4. The word is used 3 times in 5. Mos. 18, the short chapter Islam takes its quotes from (verses 2, 15 and 18), each time clearly meaning "your fellow Jews" like nearly all the other places in his speech. Not one word about the slightest relationship to Arabs.
  5. Worse: Arabs and Arabia is mentioned something like 15 times (see below in this comment) in OT according to our latest leafing through the book. Without exception the connection is neutral or negative or even very negative (enemies) - not one single positive connection, not to mention any close relationship, let alone brotherhood.
  6. Even worse: The words "brother" "brethren", and "brothers" also are used figuratively at least 33 times in the Quran (see further down in this comment) - not one time linking Jews and Arabs. (There is one after a fashion exception: Hypocrites and Jews are linked - but that is something else). Also here the word is used within closed groups - like in the Bible. And not one word in all the Quran about Jews and Arabs being brothers. Not even a whisper.
  7. Worst: Moses in his speech said "a prophet like me". But Muhammad was no real prophet. The definition of a prophet was a person who could see at least parts of the unseen, and thus a person who:
    1. Have the gift of and close enough connection to a god for making prophesies.
    2. Makes prophesies that always or at least mostly come true.
    3. Makes so frequent and/or essential prophesies, that it is a clear part of his mission.

A few things Muhammad said, came true – like it has to do for any person saying many things through many years – and most of what he said which did not come true, was forgotten (also this is what normally happens if it is nothing spectacular). But he did not guess the future correctly often - actually he statistically and according to the laws of probability should have "hit the mark" far more often by sheer chance than he did - there just are a few cases where Muslims will claim he foretold something correctly, and few if any of them are "perfect hits". But then the Quran makes it pretty clear that even though he was intelligent, he had little fantasy and that he also was nearly unable to make innovative thinking. (Nearly all his tales and his ideas in reality were "borrowed" ones - though often twisted to fit his new religion. Definitely not a problem any omniscient god would have had).

The main things here are that Muhammad never indicated that anything of what he said was meant as prophesies, that he never indicated, not to mention claimed, that he had the gift of prophesying, that it nowhere is documented that all/most of what he said about the future came true (point 2 above), and finally that both he and Islam said and say that Muhammad was unable to see the unseen (extra revealing here is that the old Biblical title for a prophet, was "a seer" - one who saw the unseen (see further down)) and also that there were no miracles connected to Muhammad “except the Quran” (prophesying is a kind of miracle - seeing what has not yet happened). (This fact that Islam admits there were no miracles connected to Muhammad "except the revelation of the Quran" also is a solid proof for that all the miracles connected to Muhammad mentioned in the Hadiths, are made up stories). We also should add that his favorite wife (and infamous child wife) Aisha, according to Hadiths (f.x. Al-Bukhari) states that anyone saying Muhammad could foresee things, were wrong.

Verse 7/188b also is very relevant here: "If I (Muhammad*) had knowledge of the Unseen (= what is hidden and what has not happened yet*), I should have - - -". IT IS VERY CLEAR THAT MUHAMMAD DID NOT HAVE THE PROPHETS' ABILITY TO SEE "THE UNSEEN" - he was no real prophet.

Also relevant here is as said that the original title of the Jewish prophets was not "prophet", but "seer" - one who saw at least parts of the unseen. (F.x. 1. Sam. #9/9, 1. Sam. 9/11, 1. Sam. 9/18, 1. Sam. 9/19, 2. Kings. 17/13, 1. Chr. 9/22, 1. Chr. 26/28, 1. Chr. 29/29, 2. Chr. 9/29, 2. Chr. 16/7, 2. Chr.16/10, 2. Chr. 19/2, 2. Chr. 29/25, Amos 7/12, Mic. 3/7 - some places the two titles even are used side by side in transition periods). Muhammad thus so definitely was no seer - prophet - even according to his own words; he had no "knowledge of the unseen".

Many liked - and like - the title prophet, and there have been made other definitions for this title - the most common of these are "one who brings messages from a god", or "one who represents a god", or "one who acts/talks on behalf of a god". But the fact remains: Without being able to prophesy, he or she is no real prophet. A messenger for someone or something or himself - ok. An apostle - ok. But not a real prophet.

###This is a fact no Muslim will admit: Muhammad in reality simply was no real prophet or seer. Perhaps a messenger for someone or something or for himself – or perhaps an apostle – but not a real prophet. He only “borrowed” that impressive and imposing title. It is up to anyone to guess why. It also is anybody's guess why he more often used the far less imposing title "Messenger" - a messenger boy is something far smaller than a prophet. Did he know or suspect that it was not true, and that explanations for the lack of prophesies from a self proclaimed prophet would be difficult to explain? Like the reason why he so seldom claims he is found in the Bible, may have been that he knew or suspected it was not true?

Besides: To belong in a special line of prophets, the teachings and the prophesies of course must be in line with the other prophets in that line, because a god follows a steady course and teaching (one of the proofs for that something is wrong with the Quran - Allah changes too much back and forth in his claimed teachings, and especially so if he had been identical to Yahweh: From rather harsh up to Jesus, then mild under the new covenant, then harsher, but reasonably mild under Muhammad in Mecca, and finally a full and partly immoral and unjust war god in Medina from ca. 622 - 624 AD when Muhammad started to need warriors to gain riches (mainly for bribes) and power). If not, one either belongs to another line - another god with another teaching/religion - or one simply is a false prophet (there have been many more false prophets than real ones through the times). Muhammad's religion was far from both the OT and even much further from NT, and in addition he was unable to make prophesies - even if he had been a prophet, he is far too far from the teaching of Yahweh and Yahweh’s Jewish prophets. He is not in that line of prophets and not speaking for the same god - too much is different. The Quran simply may be one of the many apocryphal - made up - manuscripts/books more or less loosely built on Biblical traditions and "adjusted" to fit the religious teaching of sects more or less distant from the mother religion - the Quran in case is one of the more distant ones.

Also see 30/40h below.

The claim in reality is logical rubbish and taken far out of the context. But it is the only "real" claim they try to cling to (there are some others, but they are even more far out) - they have to, because if not the Quran is wrong and thus not from a god and Islam a made up religion. Also see the chapter "Muhammad in the Bible" in "1000+ Mistakes in the Quran" - - and 2/77a and 7/157e below.

If the Quran simply belongs among the apocryphal books, many things are easy to understand, and it at least belongs in that line and tradition, even if it is further "out" than most of the others. Muhammad also fits the picture of the leader of an apocryphal sect, admittedly more immoral and bloody than most of the others.

The word "brother", "brothers", "brotherhood" used figuratively in OT:

  • 1. 1. Mos. 13/8: Abraham said so to Lot, his nephew. A much closed group.
  • 2. 1. Mos. 25/18: Ishmael’s sons lived in hostility to "all their brothers". This may mean they fought each other or that they were hostile to the Jews - in both cases they at this time were members of a much closed group: Close relatives - Ishmael was the brother of Isaac. From the context we think the latter meaning is intended. But this relationship for several reasons over time drifted into nothing. It also is highly unlikely the Arabs are descendants of Ishmael, as the only somewhat reliable source about these - the Bible - tells they settled near the border of Egypt (1. Mos. 25/18) and not in Arabia (not to mention in Mecca). #####Also science says "it is practically sure that Abraham never was in Mecca" - so Ishmael had no connection that way, too. And not least: Ishmael and his descendant were outside the covenant between the Jews and Yahweh - a covenant made to Isaac (1. Mos.21/12). At the time the Books of Moses were written - at least 1000 years before Muhammad - there also was no reason for the writer to place Ishmael and his sons a wrong place.
  • 3. 1. Mos. 29/4: Here in the meaning "dear friends" indicating peaceful intention. The nomad Jacob to some fellow shepherds.
  • 4. 3. Mos. 21/10: Fellow Jews - fellow priests even.
  • 5. 4. Mos. 20/3: Fellow Jews.
  • 6. 4. Mos. 20/14: Moses to the Edomites (= fellow descendants of Isaac and reckoned to be (distant) relatives of the Jews).
  • 7. 5. Mos. 1/16: Fellow Jews.
  • 8. 5. Mos. 1/16: Fellow Jews ("brother Israelites").
  • 9. 5. Mos. 1/28: Fellow Jews (the spies into Canaan).
  • 10. 5. Mos. 2/4: Edomites - fellow descendants of Isaac.
  • 11. 5. Mos. 2/8: Edomites - fellow descendants of Isaac.
  • 12. 5. Mos. 3.18: Fellow Jews ("brother Israelites").
  • 13. 5. Mos. 3/20: Fellow Jews.
  • 14. 5. Mos. 10/9: Fellow Jews - the 11 other tribes of Jews are the brothers of the Levites (12. tribe).
  • 15. 5. Mos. 15/2: Fellow Jew "- - - fellow Israelite or brother - - -" = fellow Jew = brother.
  • 16. 5. Mos. 15/7: Fellow Jews ("your (Jewish*) brothers").
  • 17. 5. Mos. 15/7: Fellow Jews ("your poor brother (Jew*)").
  • 18. 5. Mos. 15/9: Fellow Jews (your needy (Jewish*) brother).
  • 19. 5. Mos. 15/11: Fellow Jews.
  • 20. 5. Mos. 17/15: Fellow Jew (their king had to be "from among your own brothers" = a Jew).
  • 21. 5. Mos. 17/15: Fellow Jew (take no king who is not a Jew - "not a brother Israelite").
  • 22. 5. Mos. 18/2: Fellow Jews (Levites "shall have no inheritance among their brothers" - among the 11 other Jewish tribes).
  • 23. 5. Mos. 18/15: Fellow Jew ("a prophet like me (Moses*) from among your own brothers" - note the similarity of the expression with f.x. 17/15 and 18/2 - also see the texts of the two under 17/15).
  • 24. 5. Mos. 18/18: Fellow Jew ("a prophet like you (Moses*) from among their own brothers". Identical to 18/15, except here Yahweh is speaking.
  • 25. 5. Mos. 19/18: Fellow Jew - this is from Moses' speech to and about his Jews like all in 5. Mos.
  • 26. 5. Mos. 19/19: Fellow Jew - see 19/18 just above.
  • 27. 5. Mos. 20/8: Fellow Jew.
  • 28. 5. Mos. 22/1: Fellow Jew.
  • 29. 5. Mos. 22/2: Fellow Jew.
  • 30. 5. Mos. 22/3: Fellow Jew.
  • 31. 5. Mos. 22/4: Fellow Jew.
  • 32. 5. Mos. 23/7: Edomites - see 4.Mos 20/14 above.
  • 33. 5. Mos. 23/19: Fellow Jew.
  • 34. 5. Mos. 23/20: Fellow Jew ("a brother Israelite").
  • 35. 5. Mos. 24/7: Fellow Jew ("his brother Israelite").
  • 36. 5. Mos. 25/3: Fellow Jew.

  • 37. 5. Mos. 33/16: Fellow Jews ("Joseph" here means the tribe - actually the 2 half-tribes Manasseh and Ephraim - and thus figurative meaning).
  • 38. 5. Mos. 33/24: Fellow Jews - the other 11 Jewish tribes.
  • 39. Joshua 1/14: Fellow Jews - ahead of the other Jews.
  • 40. Joshua 1/14: Fellow Jews - help other Jews.
  • 41. Joshua 14/8: Fellow Jews - the other spies to Canaan.
  • 42. Joshua 22/3: Fellow Jews.
  • 43. Joshua 22/4: Fellow Jews.
  • 44. Joshua 22/7: Fellow Jews.
  • 45. Joshua 22/8: Fellow Jews.
  • 46. Judges 1/3: Fellow Jews (the tribe of Simonites were the "brothers" of the tribe of Judah.
  • 47. Judges 1/17: Fellow Jews - see Judges 1/3 just above.
  • 48. Judges 9/3: Fellow Jews - Abimelech was the "brother" of the people in Shechem.
  • 50. Judges 9/18: Fellow Jews - see Judges 9/3 just above.
  • 51. Judges 18/8: Fellow Jews - other members of the Jewish tribe Dan.
  • 52. Judges 18/14: Fellow Jews - see Judges 18/8 just above.
  • 53. Judges 20/23: Fellow Jews - Benjamites were the brothers of the other 11 Jewish tribes.
  • 54. Judges 20/28: Fellow Jews - see Judges 20/23 just above.
  • 55. Judges 21/6: Fellow Jews - see Judges 20/23 above.
  • 56. 1. Sam. 30/23: Fellow Jews - David's men.
  • 57. 2. Sam. 1/26: Fellow Jew - a close Jewish friend of David.
  • 58. 2. Sam. 2/26: Fellow Jews.
  • 59. 2. Sam. 2/27: Fellow Jews.
  • 60. 2. Sam. 19/12: Fellow Jews.
  • 61. 2. Sam. 19/41: Fellow Jews - the Judah tribe was the brother of the other Jewish tribes.
  • 62. 2. Sam. 20/9: Fellow Jew.
  • 63. 1. Kings 9/13: An exception: Greetings between 2 kings - but a closed group: Kings.
  • 64. 1. Kings 12/24: Fellow Jews.
  • 65. 1. Kings 13/30: Fellow Jew.
  • 66. 1. Kings 20/32: Similar to 1. Kings 9/13.
  • 67. 1. Kings 20/32: Similar to 1. Kings 9/13.
  • 68. 1. Chr. 13/2: Fellow Jews.
  • 69. 1. Chr. 15/16: Fellow Jews - fellow Levites actually.
  • 70. 1. Chr. 15/17: Fellow Jews (fellow Levites).
  • 71. 1. Chr. 15/17: Fellow Jews - the Merarites of Levi.
  • 72. 1. Chr. 15/18: Fellow Jews.
  • 73. 1. Chr. 23/30: Fellow Jews (fellow Levites).
  • 74. 1. Chr. 24/31: Fellow Jews (fellow Levites).
  • 75. 1. Chr. 24/31: Fellow Jew (fellow Levite).
  • 76. 1. Chr. 28/2: Fellow Jews - David's men and underlings.
  • 77. 2. Chr. 11/4: Fellow Jews.
  • 78. 2. Chr. 19/10: Fellow Jews.
  • 79. 2. Chr. 29/15: Fellow Jews (fellow Levites).
  • 80. 2. Chr. 30/7: Fellow Jews.
  • 81. Ezra 3/8: Fellow Jews.
  • 82. Ezra 6/20: Fellow Jews (the priests).

  • 83. Ezra 7/18: Fellow Jews ("your brother Jews").
  • 84. Ezra 8/24: Fellow Jews.
  • 85. Nehemiah 5/1: Fellow Jews ("their Jewish brothers").
  • 86. Nehemiah 5/8: Fellow Jews ("our Jewish brothers").
  • 87. Nehemiah 5/8: Fellow Jews.
  • 88. Nehemiah 10/29: Fellow Jews.
  • 89. Nehemiah 13/13: Fellow Jews.
  • 90. Isaiah 66/5: Fellow Jews (must be Jews as believing in Yahweh, at least officially).
  • 91. Isaiah 66/20: Fellow Jews - bringing them from other countries they have lived.
  • 92. Jeremiah 7/15: Fellow Jews - from the Jewish tribe Ephraim.
  • 93. Jeremiah 22/18: Fellow Jews.
  • 94. Ezekiel 11/14: Fellow Jews - your brothers included all Israel.
  • 95. Hosea 2/1: Fellow Jews.
  • 96. Amos 1/11: Edom (descendants of Esau - see 4. Mos. 20/14 above) will be punished for sins against Jews.
  • 97. Obadiah 1/12: Similar to Amos 1/11 just above.

  • 98. Micah 5/5: Fellow Jews.
  • 99. Zech. 10/14: Fellow Jews - Judah and Israel (the southern and the northern Jewish country).

There may be a few more. For one thing we may have overlooked one or a few, and for another there are a number of cases where it is not clear whether it is meant literary or figurative, and these cases we have omitted if we were not pretty sure it was meant figuratively.

Also worth noticing here is that the few times - f.x. only 2 in Moses' speech = 5. Mos. - when Jews are not intended, the intended group always are named or clearly indicated. No Arab are named or intended anywhere in his speech - or anywhere else neither in the Bible nor in the Quran in such connection.

Are anybody able to find Arab brothers of the Jews here? - especially when you know there are no such ones also in the Quran, and that the some 15 times Arabs and Arabia are mentioned in OT, they either are mentioned in neutral words, in negative words, or as enemies, and never as friends, not to mention close friends or relatives.

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This work was upload with assistance of M. A. Khan, editor of and the author of "Islamic Jihad: A Legacy of Forced Conversion, Imperialism, and Slavery".