Humans, Other Beings in/Relevant to the Quran, Part 1
01 Jan 2016
(Harun in Arabic.)
The older brother of Moses. Aaron was 3 years older than Moses (2. Mos.7/7). As Aaron was permitted to live, whereas the baby Moses should die, the order from the pharaoh that all male Jewish babies should be killed may have come between the birth of Aaron and the birth of Moses.
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*001 2/29f: “- - - He gave order and perfection to the seven firmaments - - -”. Firmament is another word for the heaven we see, though mostly used for the night sky. The Quran many places tells about the seven heavens or firmaments or tracts (the word “heavens” or similar is used in plural in the Quran at least 199 times) - there is no doubt that according to the Quran there are 7 (material - if not the stars could not be fastened to one of them) heavens. (Islam also “knows” who inhabit the different heavens - f.x. Jesus in the 2. heaven, Joseph in 4., Aaron in 5., Moses in 6., and Abraham - and Muhammad - in the 7. heaven, and Allah above the 7. heaven, to mention some. This is not said in the Quran, though).
002 2/248e: “- - - there shall come to you (the Jews) the Ark of Covenant”. Well, according to the Bible the Ark of Covenant did not come to the Jews – they built it themselves in accordance with a description they got from Yahweh. That was done around 1330 BC under Moses = some 300 years before Samuel, whom the Quran talks about. (We must add that this is a well-known part of the Bible, and most Jews and Christians at once see that something is wrong. May be because of that some Muslims claim that the translation is wrong; it was not the Ark that was sent, but a heart containing mental relics from Moses and Aaron. It is not a normal explanation to meet, as it takes some twisting of the original text to find this "translation". But it is a typical Islamic case of fleeing from having to meet facts one does not like: If the mistake is too obvious, search for another meaning - if necessary by twisting the words - or call it an allegory or something). Everything said about the ark in this verse is nonsense compared to the Bible.
To tell that the Quran means something different from what is really say, is to corrupt the book. This even more so as the Quran strongly states that it is written in clear and easy language, which is to be understood like it says.Also see 2/248e just below.
003 2/248f: (When the Ark - a not too large chest (2.5 cubits long, 1.5 cubits wide, 1.5 cubits high - 2. Mos. 37/1 - and as 1 cubit was some 45 centimeters, this means some 112 cm by some 67 cm by some 67 cm) - will be brought, it will contain) "the relics left by the family of Moses and the family of Aaron". Wrong. Even if the only other source is the Bible, it is so extremely unlikely that the Jews put such things in the ultra-holy Ark of Covenant - this even more so as the Jews did not believe in saints - Islam will have to produce very strong proofs to make us believe this. There also is the fact according to the Bible that when Solomon later brought the Ark of Covenance to his new temple, it is specified in the Bible that it only contained the two stone tablets with the 10 Commandments (1. Kings 8/9).
004 2/248j: Conclusions about verse 2/248 in the Quran: It tells that Saul (wrongly called Talut in the Quran) has become a king, and that the Ark of Covenant was going to be brought to the Jews. But Saul was king shortly before 1000 BC, whereas the Ark of Covenant was made - not brought, but made - under Moses somewhere around 1330 BC (according to science the Exodus - if it is not fiction - took place ca. 1335 BC (under Pharaoh Ramses II) and the Ark was made not too long afterward). The Quran is some 300 years wrong - in addition to wrong way of "delivery". There are so clear references to the Ark in the Bible, that even if the Bible is the only source for it, Islam will have to bring strong proofs to make us believe it was brought by angels during the reign of Saul/Talut, containing relics from Moses and Aaron and their families.
005 3/33d: "- - - Imran - - -". Imran was the father of Moses, Aaron, and Miriam, but Muhammad knew the Bible so little and had so vague ideas about its contents, that he believed Imran also was the father of Mary (mother of Jesus) some 1200 years later (actually he believed Mary and Miriam was the same person) - any god had known better, so who made the Quran? Well, the likely reason for the mistake is that in Arab both Mary and Miriam are written Maryam. Also see 3/35a+b below. An extra tit-bit here is that as Muhammad believed Miriam, sister of Moses, and Mary, mother of Jesus was the same woman, and as he further believed Mary was part of the Trinity, Miriam - sister of Moses and Aaron - has to be part of the Trinity. Muhammad had got his Bible pretty mixed up to say the least of it. No god would make such historical and religious nonsense. Then who made the Quran?
***006 3/35a: ”Imran’s wife - - -”. The Quran here is talking about the mother of Mary (see also 3/33d above). But Imran was the father of Aaron, Moses and Miriam, who lived some 1200 years earlier! Muhammad did not know the Bible very well, and he thought Mary was Miriam, the sister of Aaron and Moses. In 19/28 this is directly said, when talking about Mary: “O sister of Aaron”. It is likely that the reason for this mistake is that in Arab Mary (mother of Jesus) and Miriam (the older sister of Moses and Aaron) are written the same way: Maryam. With his limited knowledge of the Bible, Muhammad believed it was the same woman. Any god had known better. We may add that some Muslims say it is not the same Imran, but scientists agree on that Muhammad meant the same man - the Imran who "was chosen by Allah" like Adam, Noah and Abraham (see 3/33a) - the father of Aaron, Moses - - - and of Mary/Maryam/Miriam. That Muhammad really was wrong here, and thought Mary was the sister of Aaron and Moses, is documented by the fact that according to Hadith (the other Muslim main source of information about their religion and about Muhammad) Muhammad was corrected, and he tried to find explanations to repair the mistake (without success). He also did not add information showing that he and Allah for some reason was right in his mistaken statement all the same.
You will also meet Muslims telling that the Quran does not mean that Mary really was the sister of Aaron (they say it was meant figuratively – a normal way out for Muslims, when things are difficult to explain), and that the book does not mean that she was the daughter of Imran - only a descendant of him. Islam should after so many hundreds of years have found better “explanations” - “explanations” which on top of all is contradicted by the fact that it is told already Mohammad himself tried to correct the mistake, but without success as mentioned. But there is no other explanation they can try to use. Also see 19/28 below.
**** There also is another aspect of all the points which are wrong or helplessly expressed or something - may be unbelievable some 3000 places in the book - very roughly one in every second verse on average (there are 6247 verses): Who is willing to believe that an omniscient and intelligent god is so helpless expressing himself in a book where he tells he uses a simple language and a language easy to understand, and so uneducated that he uses hundreds and more of mistaken facts, so that mere humans time and again and again and again have to step in and explain or "explain" what he "really means"? - not to mention explain or "explain" away mistakes? It takes a lot of naivety, brainwashing and plain old blindness and lack of moral courage not to at least ask questions. You believe just because your father and your grandmother told you so, and it is difficult to question your old beliefs and the basis of your "facts of life"?
- 007 4/163e: "- - - We (Allah*) sent it (messages by inspiration*) to Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob and the (12 Jewish*) Tribes, to Jesus, Job, Jonah, Aaron, and to Solomon - - -". As Muhammad claimed he received his verses from Allah by inspiration, it was essential to "prove" that this was a normal way for prophets to receive information from the god. And NB: He used these claimed Muslim prophets as proofs for that "inspiration" was a normal way of communication. The word "inspiration" is not used anywhere in the Bible in such connections. Also it is nowhere in the Bible mentioned that Ishmael had a close enough connection to Yahweh to be a prophet.
008 5/25b: "- - - separate us (Moses and Aaron*) from this rebellious people (the Jews*)!" Not from the Bible.
009 6/84d: "- - - Noah - - - David, Solomon, Job, Joseph, Moses, and Aaron - - -". 7 time anomalies. See 4/13d above.
010 7/120-22: "But the sorcerers fell down prostrate in adoration, saying: We believe in the Lord of the Worlds, the Lord of Moses and Aaron". This is not from the Bible. In the Bible there is not mentioned one word about clashes because of religion. The only subject was: Let the Jews leave Egypt.
####This part of the story also proves that Muhammad knew he was lying each time he claimed that the reason why Allah did not make miracles, or in other ways proved his existence, was that miracles would not make anyone believe anyhow. Here he already in 621 AD tells that all the Pharaoh's sorcerers suddenly become strongly believing Muslims because of small miracles performed by Moses.The same goes for Ramses II becoming a Muslim in 10/90 because he saw a miracle of a made flooding.
- 011 7/150d: "The people did indeed reckon me (Aaron*) as naught - - -." In the Quran the making of the golden calf is strictly against the will of Aaron. In the Bible he may be against it, but not more than that he takes part in the making of it.
012 10/75a: "- - - after them We (Allah*) sent Moses and Aaron to Pharaoh and his chiefs - - -". Several time anomalies. See 4/13d above.
013 10/78c: "- - - in order that you (Moses*) and your brother (Aaron*) may have greatness in the land (Egypt*)?" This is not from the Bible. In the Bible there is no conflict about the religion here - there you only find "let my people go". But then much of what is said in the Quran to be from Exodus (= 1. Mos.), is not from the Bible - the only existing source about Exodus (= the Jews leaving Egypt under Moses) except for legends and fairy tales.
014 10/78d: "- - - in order that you (Moses*) and your brother (Aaron*) may have greatness in the land (Egypt*)?" YA1463 comments: "Notice how they (Pharaoh Ramses II and his men*) attribute evil motives to the men of Allah, motives of ambitions and lust for power - - -. The same device was used against Al Mustafa (another name for Muhammad*)". For one thing this kind of insinuations from Ramses II is not mentioned in the Bible. But more interesting is that Yusuf Ali here turns the facts (the only perhaps facts are in the Bible, as the Quran and all its mistakes are not from any god, and thus not from any reasonably reliable source) upside down: Like so many places the history of real or claimed historical prophets were changed to become parallels to Muhammad's own life and story, to make him look like the old prophets, and thus a normal prophet.
105 10/89b: "Accepted is your prayer (O Moses and Aaron)!". A historical anomaly. See 4/13d above.
####016 ¨ 19/28a: “(Mary*) O sister of Aaron!” This is another contradiction to the Bible + at the same time the most famous mistake in the Quran. The likely reason is that in Arab the names Mary (the mother of Jesus) and Miriam (the sister of Moses and Aaron) both are written Maryam. Muhammad was not well versed in the Bible, and thought it was the same woman, even though some 1200 years separated them. The Hadith tells that Muhammad was told by his followers that he was wrong, and tried to explain away the mistake, but without real success. Muslims today tend to “explain” the blunder by saying it was an age-old way of paying respect to a woman to connect her to a person of high standard - and similar “explanations” - but the “explanations” generally are not accepted by science, even not by all Muslim scientists - this may be partly because Muhammad also has made the father of Moses, Imran, the father of Mary another place in the Quran. (This last fact is by some Muslims “explained” with that they are two different Imrans. But also this is not accepted by the science, as it is clear that it in both cases it is the same man it is talked about - the founder of “Imran’s house” or Imran’s tribe. It also would be much of a coincidence that for one thing Mary just was a honorable descendant of Moses' parents, and that the name of her father should happen to be Imran. Well, unlikely explanations sometimes happen to be correct, but there are too many unlikely "explanations" in the Quran). Some Muslims say it is an allegory, but it clearly is not told like an allegory – to call stories that turns out to be wrong allegories also is a standard Muslim way of explaining away difficult points when other “explanations” fail. And remember: Both the Quran and Islam strains that the Quran is to be understood literally if nothing else is said. Allegories, etc., also have points very easy to see, or are explained (which is not the case here) if Muhammad had intended to make a point of something. A clear mistake according to science. This is even more clear as Hadith tells Mohammad himself was unaware he had made a mistake, and is told to try unsuccessfully to explain it away when he was corrected by his nearest co-workers
Also see 19/28 in “Mistaken facts in the Quran” in "1000+ Mistakes in the Quran". Contradicting historical(?) facts – it is not even denied by Islam that there was a long time between Moses and Jesus (and thus between Miriam and Mary).
017 19/53b: "- - - We (Allah*) gave him (Moses*) his brother Aaron - - -". The other way round would be more correct, as Aaron according to the Bible was 3 years older than Moses (2. Mos.7/7). And not to forget: According to the Bible, Moses' god was Yahweh, not Allah.
018 19/53c: "- - - Aaron, (also) a prophet - - -". Moses was a prophet also in the Bible - it is said so in f.x. 5. Mos. 18/15 and 18/18 - but Aaron is nowhere treated like or behaved like or was called a prophet in that book.
019 20/29: "And give me (Moses*) a Minister from my family (Aaron*) - - -". In the Bible it only is a question of a spokesman.
020 20/47b: “Verily we (Moses and Aaron*) are messengers sent by thy (Ramses II’s*) Lord (Allah*) - - -“. Wrong – Ramses II was a polytheist. Besides: He might have heard about Yahweh (but would not respect the god of slaves very much), but never about Allah.
021 20/47e: “- - - we (Moses and Aaron*) come from thy (Ramses II’s*) Lord (Allah*)!” See 20/47a just above.
022 20/48b: "Verily it has been revealed to us (Moses and Aaron*) that the Penalty (awaits) those who reject (guidance (= Islam*)) and turn away". In the Bible there is no religious debate - only the demand to let the Jews go.
023 20/49c: "Who then, O Moses, is the Lord of you two (Moses and Aaron*)?". The Jews had been in Egypt 430 years according to the Bible. Islam claims 100 - 300 years. (The Quran says that the Pharaoh drowned. We know that Ramses II did not drown, and Islam, therefore, needs to find a pharaoh who can have drowned, and therefore tries to move it backwards to more unknown pharaohs who can have died that way - if not something is seriously wrong with the Quran, as a god does not make mistakes in his holy book. (Also the Bible says he drowned, but the Bible is written by humans, and humans can make mistakes - f.x. mistaken one of Ramses II's generals or the many (67?) sons for the pharaoh.)) Even after only 100 years the ruling pharaoh would know who was the god of a big group in his country, like the Jews. The question is not logical.
024 20/63b: "- - - their (Moses, Aaron*) object is to drive you (Ramses II) out from your land - - - etc.". Not from the Bible - there Moses' only topic was "Let my people go". See 20/57b+c above.
##025 20/70a: “So the magician were thrown down to prostration (because Moses had done a real miracle*): they said: ‘We believe in the Lord of Aaron and Moses (because they had seen the miracle*).” But Muhammad contradicted this effect:
****Muhammad many times in the Quran explains that the reason for that he/Allah would/will make no miracles, was that it would not make anyone believe anyhow – AND HERE ALL THE MAGICIANS BECAME BELIEVERS BECAUSE OF JUST ONE SMALL MIRACLE. (This is one of the reasons why one knows Muhammad knew he was lying each time he used this excuse – he had himself told that miracles worked.)
(At least 5 contradictions).
026 20/70b: "- - - they said: ‘We believe in the Lord of Aaron and Moses - - -". See 20/49b above.
027 21/48a: "- - - Moses - - - Aaron - - -". 2 time anomalies.028 23/45a: "- - - Moses - - - Aaron - - -". 2 time anomalies.
- 029 25/36a: “’Go ye both (Moses and Aaron - remember that Islam claims Allah is the same god as Yahweh - what Yahweh did, consequently Allah did*), to the people (the people of Egypt*) who have rejected our Signs’. And those (people) We destroyed with utter destruction”. Some more mass murder. Besides it was not the people of Egypt who were destroyed, only a part of their army.
030 25/36b: “’Go ye both (Moses and Aaron*) to the people who have rejected our Signs’. And those (people) We (Allah*) destroyed with utter destruction.” A clear message: Kill. This verse contradicts (and abrogates) at least these milder verses (here are 88 out of the 124 Muslim scholars say are abrogated by f.x. 9/5): 2/109, 2/190, 2/256, 2/272, 3/20, 4/62, 4/81, 4/90, 5/3, 5/28, 5/48, 5/99, 6/60, 6/66, 6/70, 6/104, 6/107, 6/112, 6/158, 7/87, 7/188, 7/193, 7/199, 8/61, 9/68, 10/41, 10/99, 10/102, 10/108, 11/12, 11/121, 13/40, 15/3, 15/94, 16/35, 16/82, 16/125, 16/126, 16/127, 17/54, 18/29, 18/56, 19/39, 20/130, 21/107, 21/112, 22/49, 22/68, 23/54, 23/96, 24/54, 26/216, 27/92, 28/50, 28/55, 29/18, 29/46, 32/30, 34/25, 34/28, 35/23, 35/24a, 36/17, 39/41, 41/34, 42/6, 42/15, 42/48, 43/83, 43/89, 44/59, 45/14, 46/9, 46/135a, 46/135b, 46/135b, 50/39, 50/45, 51/50-51, 51/54, 52/45, 52/47, 53/29, 67/26, 73/10, 73/11, 79/45, 86/17, 88/22, 109/6. They are all quoted under 9/5. (At least 91 contradictions).
031 26/13: "- - - Aaron - - -". A time anomaly.
032 26/33: "- - - it (Moses' hand) was white to all beholders". According to the Bible it was white and leprous (2. Mos. 4/6). Seemingly a minor detail, but for one thing leprosy was no minor thing at that time, and for another to afterwards remove also the leprosy, told much more about something supernatural than just to remove a shining color. Two details: 1) according to the Bible it was Aaron who threw the rod/staff (2. Mos. 7/10). 2) It is not mentioned in the Bible that Moses used the miracle with his hand.
033 26/36b: "They (Ramses II's advisers*) said: 'Keep him (Moses*) and his brother (Aaron*) - - -".See 26/3c above.
- *034 28/3a: “We (Allah*) rehearse to thee (Muhammad/Muslims*) some of the story of Moses and Pharaoh in Truth - - -”. The story about Moses contradicts and differs not a little from the one told in the Bible - which for this part is more than 1000 years nearer in time to what (may be) happened - and with stronger traditions concerning Moses. It is a question, which one is most reliable. In any case: Both have the death of Pharaoh Ramses II wrong (but when it comes to the Bible it is possible to explain this - not so with the Quran, which is told by Allah (or even has existed since eternity and is never made), as Allah is omniscient, and omniscient gods make no mistakes (the human narrator of the Bible may have mixed Ramses II with one of his 67(?) sons or one of his generals - for Allah such a mistake is impossible)).
Moses and his brother Aaron came to Pharaoh Ramses II (one of the really strong and mighty pharaohs in the history of Egypt - may be the mightiest ever). A lot is known about Ramses II, among other things that he did not drown. Because of this you often meet Muslims claiming this happened earlier and under more unknown pharaohs which we do not know from what they died, but science is not in real doubt, and also the years then does not add up.
##There is at least one more historical fact connected to this story which is wrong in the Quran: The Quran tells that Allah destroyed all the large, magnificent buildings in Egypt (7/137). There is no kind of scientific indication for that this can be correct - no trace from such a catastrophe at that time neither in archeology nor in literature nor even in folklore. And remember: No omniscient god makes mistakes - then who made the Quran?
Another point: As no god ever was involved in a book of a quality like the Quran, also no god rehearsed it to Muhammad.
035 37/114a: “Again (of old) We (Allah*) bestowed Our favor on Moses and Aaron - - -“. “The Message of the Quran” is quick to add that it was not because they were progeny of Abraham, but because of their own quality. What the Quran never mentions, what Islam never mentions, what Muslims never mention, is that Israel’s (belief in a) special contact with Yahweh, is not – repeat not - that they had an ancestor named Abraham some thousands of years ago - though it does not hurt. The reason was and is the covenant that was made between Israel and Yahweh according to OT – and renewed several times through the years. It is good propaganda to bully them for believing Abraham who lived some 4ooo years ago (if he ever lived) is a part-out card to Heaven. But it is pretty dishonest to make this lie, and to never mention the real reason for the Jew’s belief: The covenant – broken and maltreated, but never lifted or ended. It is dishonest to hide this - in the same way as it is pretty dishonest never to mention the “new covenant” made via Jesus in NT – but then Muslims are obliged to use al-Taqiyya (the lawful lie) or “Kitman” (the lawful half-truth) if necessary, when it comes to defending or promoting Islam – no matter whether Islam is a false religion or not (for some reason or other Islam and its Muslims seldom claim that Islam is the religion of honesty)).
(Around 1000 BC - Saul was the first king, David the second (1007? - 970 BC?), and then Solomon - till perhaps 927 BC.
036 37/117: ”And We (Allah*) gave them (Moses and Aaron) the Book - - -”. Wrong. According to the Bible, Moses received the 10 Commandments and in addition was told the Law (later a part of the Books of Moses) – which he himself wrote down later. Nothing else. More essential here is that science tells that what is called the “the Books of Moses” were written centuries after the time of Moses.
037 37/117b: ”And We (Allah*) gave them (Moses and Aaron) the Book - - -”. Muhammad claimed that all real and claimed earlier prophets each received a copy of "the Mother of the Book" (the Quran was Muhammad's such copy), and thus similar or identical to the Quran (exact copies of the same "Mother Book" should be identical). But of these 124ooo or more copies (according to Hadiths) and copies from them again (that was how books were made in the old times), neither science nor Islam has been able to find one single fragment or quotation older than 610 AD when Muhammad started his mission. For a comparison one knows some 45ooo relevant copies, fragments, or quotations from the Bible older than 610 AD. The only possible conclusion is that Muhammad was bluffing about this. 0 : 45ooo is too much for reality.
038 37/120: "- - - Moses and Aaron - - -". 2 time anomalies.
039 37/121b: "- - - those who do right - - -". Muslims - according to the Quran, Moses and Aaron both were good Muslims. Believe it if you are able to.
040 37/122: "- - - they (Moses and Aaron*) were Our (Allah's*) believing Servants (= good Muslims*)". We do not think anyone knowing the Bible needs a comment here. + it was 2ooo years too early.
041 43/47c: " - - - they (Pharaoh Ramses II and his people*) ridiculed them (Moses and Aaron*)- - -". See 43/20b above.
042 54/41a: "To the people of Pharaoh, too, aforetime, came Warners (from Allah)". The Bible claims Moses and Aaron - the only two known ones - came from Yahweh. And we remind you that in spite of the Quran's never documented claims about the opposite, the fundamental and deep differences in their teachings prove that those two are two different gods (if one or both exists - Yahweh may have proved his existence, Allah not).
##043 66/12a: “And Mary the daughter of ‘Imran - - -”. Once more this famous mistake. Imran was the father of Moses and Aaron - - - but they lived (if they are not fiction) some 1200 years before Mary, mother of Jesus. The pharaoh of Moses f.x. was Ramses II according to science, and we know when he lived. Muslims try to explain this with that it was another Imran, but science agrees on that it is the same one, and that Muhammad here made a genuine mistake. This even more so as Hadith shows that Muhammad later was told about his mistake, and tried to “explain” it away, but without success.
43 comments (+ basic comments/introductions).
2. ABDULLAH IBN MUHAMMAD - SON OF MUHAMMAD
It is not entirely clear how many sons Muhammad had. We have seen numbers from 2 to 5, but likely the correct number is 3:
- Qasim - mother Khadija bint Khuwaylid (we have also seen the name Khadija al-Kubra), Muhammad's first wife. He died as an infant, but Muhammad sometimes added this name to his own to document that he had had a son, and thus was a real man. A normal thing to do in Arabia.
- Abdullah or Abd'Allah, perhaps also called Taabir or Tayyab. Also he died as an infant. Mother Khadija.
- Ibrahim (= Arab for Abraham). Died as an infant. Mother Marieh, one of Muhammad's slaves and concubines.
- There is a possibility that Taabir and/or Tayyab also was/were (a) separate son(s). If so also he/they died as infant(s). Mother Khadija in case.
Muhammad also had 4 daughters (Zaynab, Umm Kulthum, Raqqyyah, and Fatima), all of them with Khadija. Only one of them - Fatima - survived him, and only by half a year.
A Muslim list (there are controversies on if all really were Muhammad's children):
- If there is a god somewhere, was the early death of his children Muhammad's punishment on Earth for his deeds?
There also are at least two mysteries connected to Muhammad's children:
- Khadija is told to have been 45 years old when she married Muhammad (he was 25, but Khadija was rich). This means she really was too old to give him 6, not to mention 7 or 8 children. One possible explanation is that the children, or at least many of them, in reality were the children of Khadija's dead earlier husband - children taken over (adopted) by Muhammad (this was not unusual in the old Arabia and other places where children were your only way of having a good and safe old age). There also is a possibility that some or all originally were the children of Khadija's sister Halah, who had a strained marriage and died young. Islam in both cases strongly claims that at least Fatima really was Muhammad's daughter (this because if not, none of the persons who today claim to be descendants from Muhammad, really are so), but we have found no reliable documentation for this claim. There also is the is the fact that it is unlikely - though not impossible - that a very fertile Khadija had no children in her earlier marriage, but then suddenly god many children with a man unable or nearly unable to impregnate other women. (It is believed, though, the Khadija had 4 children with earlier husbands.)
- Muhammad had at least 36 women, rape victims not included (though he started the relationship with his later concubine Rayhana bint Amr and his later wife Safiyya bint Huayay by raping them) - long time wives, short time wives, concubines + some one does not know if they were formally married to him or not. Only two of these - his first wife, Khadija, and his slave concubine Marieh - got children claimed to be Muhammad's. There are two possible explanations for this: Muhammad was nearly infertile, or he was infertile and other men the father(s) of those children. As for Khadija her children may have been from her earlier marriage, or she may have married Muhammad to be able to cultivate a connection to a prohibited man. (That rich women made such arrangements to have an "explanation" if they became pregnant, was not unheard of in older times. Also remember here that in the old Arabia sex was one of "the two delicious things" - the other one was alcohol.) And as for Marieh: A slave girl forced to satisfy an old man may have had her own dreams, and perhaps visited an attractive young man one or more dark nights. (And finally there is the possibility that Muhammad was not 100% infertile, and one or a few lucky times succeeded in fathering a baby. That his sons died so young, in case also may - may - indicate that something was wrong with his semen (likely the Y-chromosome in case).)
001 13/30k: "On Him (Allah*) is my (Muhammad's*) trust, and to Him do I turn!" A bit risky as there never was a proof for his existence and never any kind of sure manifestation. May be the trust in Allah was the reason for why he lost all his children - included the sons Qasim, Abdullah, and Ibrahim (and perhaps Taabir and/or Tayyab) - except Fatima, and she died shortly after him? And may be that was why he died in a ways which made lasting rumors of poisoning? - in line with the fact that of the next 11 caliphs, only Abu Bakr died a natural death, and he after just a short reign?
002 108/3d: (A108/2 - omitted in the English 2008 edition): "The Prophet Muhammad got at least two sons - - -". (YA6288) tells he had 2 sons with Khadijah, Qasim and Abdullah, and then there was the son Ibrahim he had with his colored slave girl Marieh. Two are sporadically mentioned in Islamic literature, as they died very young - Qasim and Ibrahim. The third (Abdullah) hardly is mentioned at all. There also is a slight possibility that he had one or two more son(s) - Tahir and/or Tayyab - but also he/they in case died very young. He further had four daughters (all with his first wife, Khadijah), but only one of them - Fatima - survived him, and just by half a year. If one believed in higher forces, one might believe he was punished for something through his children. (The lists we have seen for his children with Khadija, mostly vary from 5 to 8).
Tahir and Tayyab also may have been other names for the likely son Abdullah.
2 + 43 = 45 comments (+ basic comments/introductions).
3. AL-ABBAS IBN ABDUL-MUTTALIB
One of the leaders of the Quraysh tribe in Mecca. Uncle of Muhammad and founder of the Abbaside dynasty, which ruled Islam 750 - 1258 AD. Originally a bit ambivalent to Muhammad's new religion, but all the same tried to see to that he was safe. He was one of the reasons why Muhammad's taking of Mecca happened rather peacefully. Died ca. 653 AD, ca. 88 years old. Historians believe the description of him has been a bit glorified (f.x. the Abbaside rulers would like a glorious forefather).
0 + 45 = 45 comments (+ basic comments/introductions).
Ruling dynasty whose forefather was Muhammad's uncle al-Abbas ibn Abdul-Muttalib. Ruled from 750 to 1258 AD, included the time when the Muslim empire was at the top of its power during the 800s, 900s, and 1000s AD. The last of them, Caliph al Mustasim, was killed when the Mongols under the khan Hulagu took Bagdad in 1258.
0 + 45 = 45 comments (+ basic comments/introductions).
5. ABDALLAH IBN RAWAHA
A "helper" - ansar - from Medina. One of the leaders of the attack on the East Roman Empire in 629 AD, but was killed in the Battle of Mutah during that attack.
0 + 45 = 45 comments (+ basic comments/introductions).
6. ABDULLAH IBN ABDUL-MUTTALIB
The father of Muhammad. He died before Muhammad was born, likely some 25 years old.0 + 45 = 45 comments (+ basic comments/introductions).
7. ABDULLAH IBN JAHSH
Muslim military leader. Brother of Zaynab, who was married to Muhammad's adopted son Zaid, but who was taken over by Muhammad later on. Led the raid against Naklah, where the first killing in the long strife with Mecca took place. Was killed in the battle of Uhud in the spring of 625 AD.
0 + 45 = 45 comments (+ basic comments/introductions).
8. ABDULLAH IBN UBAYY
One of the foremost leaders in Medina in 622 AD. Became a Muslim, but hardly was a strong believer. Died 631 AD.
0 + 45 = 45 comments (+ basic comments/introductions).
9. ABDULLAH-MUTTALIF IBN HASIM
The grandfather of Muhammad. He took care of Muhammad after his mother Amina died, and in a way which made Muhammad very fond of him. He is said to have found the Zamzam well - the well claimed to be found by Hagar (mother of Ishmael) 2ooo+ years earlier. He died around 678 - 679 AD, when Muhammad was something like 8-9 years old (or perhaps a little older).
0 + 45 = 45 comments (+ basic comments/introductions).
10. ABEL (mentioned, but not named in the Quran)
Son of Adam and Eve (not named in the Quran) and the brother of Cain. Cain killed Abel. According to the Bible (1. Mos.4/25) Adam and Eve also got the son Seth (not mentioned in the Quran).
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001 5/27a: "- - - the truth of the stories of the two sons of Adam (Cain and Abel*)". Well is it the truth? The murder is from the Bible, but the dialogue between the two just before the murder is borrowed from the made up scripture the Targum of Jerusalem (better known as pseudo-Jonathan).
Did an omniscient and omnipotent god really have to borrow from made up texts and then call it "the truth"?
002 5/27c: "- - - the two sons of Adam - - -". Like so very often the Quran is vague on relevant details, like here the names - Muhammad simply did not know them. Not good literature. (You find them in the Bible: Cain and Abel - 1. Mos. 4/4-16). Also see 67/9c below - a strong one. But of course it is ok for Islam to prove - prove - the Bible wrong and the Quran right. But as we say: Prove, not just loose claims and as loose and invalid words like the Quran always use instead of proofs.
003 5/27-31 Cain and Abel (the names not mentioned in the Quran): A lot of this is neither in the Bible nor in any other somewhat reliable source (actually the Bible is the only existing perhaps source about them). See 5/27a above.
004 5/28a: “If thou (“infidels”, Cain*) dost stretch thy hand against me (Muslims, Abel*), it is not for me to stretch my hand against thee to slay thee - - -.” When you read this, remember that Muslims and the Quran have no overall moral philosophy. What they have is a code telling them to look for “What did Muhammad say about such things?” If he has said or done something, they take that as a moral code – good moral or not. If not, they have to look in the book: “Is there a parallel situation somewhere?” If they find – sometimes by stretching imagination – a "right" way to act, or the alibi for how one wishes to act, that is the moral code. Mind also that this verse is one of the very few in all the Quran which is in accordance with the teachings of Jesus – one of the very few. And it is totally “murdered” by abrogations. This verse is contradicted and abrogated and “killed” by at least these verses: 2/191, 2/193, 3/28, 3/85, 3/148, 4/81, 4/90, 5/33, 5/72, 5/73, 8/12, 8/38-39 (the warning), 8/39, 8/60, 9/3, 9/5, 9/14, 9/23, 9/29, 9/33, 9/73, 9/123, 25/36, 25/52, 33/61, 33/73, 35/36, 47/4, 66/9. This includes many advising or permitting political, social, economical, etc. compulsion (with the sword in the background if you protest) – we mention a few here: 3/28, 3/85, 3/148, 4/81, 5/72, 5/73, 9/23, 14/7, 15/3, 33/73, 35/36. They are all quoted under 2/256 in "1000+ Mistakes in the Quran". (At least 29 contradictions). Besides: This sentence or similar is not mentioned in the Bible or any other somewhat reliable source.
005 5/28b: “If thou (“infidels”, Cain*) dost stretch thy hand against me (Muslims, Abel*), it is not for me to stretch my hand against thee to slay thee - - -.” This is not from the Bible. See 5/27a above. (Quite a lot of "Biblical" stuff in the Quran is not from the Bible, and nearly nothing is directly from the that book.
006 5/29a: (YA732): “- - - my sin as well as thine - - -.” The meaning is that a murderer according to the Quran also carries the sins of the victim – as the victim was robbed his possibility to regret his sin and be forgiven (this is one of the dogmas in Islam). But there also is another possible meaning: “my sin” may mean the sin against me who is murdered, and “thy sin” may then be the committing of the murder or “thy sin against yourself by committing such a grave deed and rob yourself for Paradise.” Like so often the Quran is not very clear.
There is no similar text in the Bible, etc. Actually just this part of the story of Cain and Abel as said is from "the Targum of Jerusalem" also known as "pseudo-Jonathan", not from the Bible.
Another point is that to forgive - or for that case to punish or reward or fulfill prayers - means for Allah to change his Plan considering the sinner/person, something which according to the Quran nobody and nothing can make him do. See 2/187d above.
007 5/28-29: The dialogue between the two (Cain and Abel) is "borrowed" from the made up scripture Targum of Jerusalem (better known as pseudo-Jonathan) - see 5/27a.
008 5/31: The raven and Cain (for burying Abel). This tale is not from the Bible, but is to be found in "The Targum of Jonathan ben Uzziah" and also in "The Targum of Jerusalem" also called "pseudo-Jonathan". You also find it in Mishna Sanhedrin. All these 3 are made up Jewish tales. Muhammad "borrowed" from many places. Would a god need to borrow from made up tales?
009 5/31-32: "'Woe is me!' said he (Cain*); 'Was I not even able to hide the shame of my brother (Abel*)?" Then he became full of regrets - On that account (which account? - there is no meaningful reason here for what follows*): We (Allah*) ordained for the Children of Israel that if anyone slew a people - - - it would be as if he slew the whole people - - -". This sentence refers to something, but what it refers to here - Cain's regret - does not give meaning, as it is not a reason for such a drastic and unconnected conclusion.
If you look in the Bible (1. Mos. 4/10) you find: "Your (Cain's*) brother's blood cries out to me (Yahweh*) from the ground". And if you go from there to Mishna Sanhedrin (4/5) you find the full story the Quran is partly repeating: "The voice of your brother's blood (NB: This word is in plural*) cries out. Man was created individually, so as to show that if someone kills a single individual, it shall be reckoned like if he had killed the whole people".
The difference - and the reason Muhammad missed - is the word "blood" in plural, which means the victims own blood and the blood of his semen = the blood of all his descendants who will never be born because he was killed. The killer thus kills not only the victim, but also all his unborn descendants - "all the people".
Muhammad here simply quotes Mishna Sanhedrin (4/5), but did not know the tale well enough to see the crucial point here - and got a conclusion hanging in the air.
9 + 45 = 54 comments (+ basic comments/introductions).
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This work was upload with assistance of M. A. Khan, editor of islam-watch.org and the author of "Islamic Jihad: A Legacy of Forced Conversion, Imperialism, and Slavery".