Allah in the Quran, Chapter 90


Chapter 90



001 The origin of Kabah is unknown. Islam tells it is made similar to a building in Heaven, and originally built by Adam (if Adam ever lived, it is likely he lived in the green delta in what is now south Iraq - some 800 miles/1300 km by air from Mecca - of this some 500 miles/800 km forbidding Arabian Desert, hardly possible to cross without camels, and Adam had no camels. After the Big Flood Muslims claim Noah rebuilt it. But if Noah ended on Mt. al-Judi, he had the better part of 1ooo miles/16oo km to go to Mecca afterwards, partly through rough and forbiddingly hot terrain - - - without a camel (the camel was not domesticated yet). If he ended on Mt. Ararat in Turkey like the Bible says, he was roughly 1200 miles/2ooo km from Mecca - and with no reason to go there.

002 Over the millennia it must have fallen into disrepair, because according to the Quran it was rebuilt by Abraham and Ishmael - an Abraham who lived in Sinai and Canaan, roughly 700 miles/1200 km north from Mecca, and separated from it by partly rough terrain and the sizzling frying pan named the Arabian Desert. Abraham had big flocks of animals (which hardly would survive that long, dry trek), but also he no camels - the camel was domesticated in south Arabia around the time of Abraham or likely before, but not introduced in the area where Abraham lived until the Assyrians started trade on Arabia a thousand years after Abraham - around 800 BC. (Abraham lived(?) around 2ooo-1800 BC). Islam claims Abraham and Ishmael are buried near the mosque, though the Bible tells Abraham was buried in the cave of Machpelah near Mamre, not too far from the Dead Sea (1. Mos. 25/9), and that Ishmael and his descendants lived a bit east of where the Suez Canal now runs (1. Mos. 25/18).

003 When the Kabah emerges from the mist of prehistory, it was a pagan temple with the moon god Hubal (perhaps with a connection to the Ba'al religion) as the main god, and the Kabah was dedicated to him. Then there was this other god Il. Over the centuries his name drifted to al-Ilah. More time passed and the name drifted on to al-Lah and little by little towards Allah, and al-Lah/Allah became the main god in Arabia. This god Muhammad took over under the name Allah. Muhammad also took over Hubal`s, now al-Lah`s pagan temple - and most of the pagan traditions and rituals connected to this pagan temple and it’s as pagan religion.

It is unclear if al-Ilah/al-Lah took over from/ousted Hubal, or if Hubal may have been another name for al-Lah/Allah.

004 The name Kabah means "the Cube" and it looks nearly like a cube. It is some 11yd/10m by 13yd/12m and some 17yd/15m high.

005 Kabah is the most holy place on Earth for Allah and for Islam, but it is never in any way mentioned in the Bible. Strange if Yahweh and Allah are the same god, or the Jewish prophets included Jesus in the same religion as Muhammad.

Finally: Always when you read the Quran, Hadiths, and other Islamic books, you should remember that Muhammad accepted the use of and himself used dishonesty in many forms in words and deeds. Even if the names are younger, it was he who institutionalized dishonesty like al-Taqiyya (the lawful lie), Kitman (the lawful half-truth), Hilah (the lawful pretending/circumventing), the use of deceit ("war is deceit" - and "everything" is war), betrayal (f.x. the peace delegation from Khaybar), and even the disuse of oaths (2/225, 5/89, 16/91, 66/2 - and the star case 3/54 (if Allah could cheat, cheating is ok)), which also includes the disuse of words and promises, as they are weaker than oaths = when oaths can be disused, so can words and promises. On top of this it is very clear from the Quran and all other central Islamic books, that Muhammad also liked respect and power and women. Combine these lusts with his acceptance of and personal use of dishonesty - even the gravest kinds: How reliable are that kind of men normally? - and how true and reliable are their never proved claims and tales?

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#006 1/1d: "In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful." Allah is in Islam said to have 99 names - these are 3 of them. The name Allah derives from the name of the old pagan main god in Mecca and Arabia, "al-Lah", which by the way does NOT mean "God" like Muslims like to claim (they often use the name "God" for Allah in the west, because it camouflages some of the differences between Allah and God/Yahweh (not the same god in spite of what Islamic claimed/-s - the basics of the religions are too different and the differences cannot be explained away by the never documented Islamic claim that the Bible is falsified, as science long since has proved this to be untrue - and Islam has proved it even stronger by being unable to find one single proved falsification among tens of thousands of relevant manuscripts or fragments older than 610 AD)), but "the god" (or to be exact: al-Ilah - his older name means the god", whereas Allah means something like "the Hidden One", but is used in the meaning "the god"). Muhammad simply took over this Pagan god, changed his position from main god to the only god, and used only the name “Allah". Plus claimed that Allah just was the correct name for the old Jewish god Yahweh, whom Christians know as God. Everything as normal for Muhammad without the tiniest proof or documentation.

The history of the god Allah:

The first we know he was a main god named Il further east (Iraq?).

He drifted into Arabia, perhaps with immigrants who settled there. Here he became the moon god al-Ilah, at least in the southern part of Arabia. It is no co-incidence that Allah's symbol is the (crescent) moon.

His name slowly changed to al-Lah, and sometimes Allah. (Easier to pronounce.)

He outcompeted the moon god Hubal in the Kabah temple in Mecca, and he became the main god. (There is a possibility for that Hubal simply was another name for al-Lah.)

Muhammad took him over and declared that he for one thing was the only god, and for another that he was the same god as the old Jewish and Christian god, Yahweh. This in spite of that the two was very different, had very different teachings, very different heavens, and very different moral codes, etc. - so much so that the differences prove with mathematical strength that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god (and thus that Jesus (and the other Jewish prophets) neither in the same lien of prophets nor even in the same religion.

Not least it is a historical fact that the religion of the Jews at the time of Jesus and before, was based on books identical to the ones of today = similar to the Mosaic religion of today and very different from Islam.

We also remind you that for OT there is an extra proof for that it is not falsified: The OT texts in the Qumran scrolls (from 150- 50 BC) are identical to in the Bible today. The Qumran scriptures are the same ones which Jesus used, and no prophet like Jesus - like you find him in both the Bible and in the Quran - would use false holy scriptures (there is no indication neither in the Bible nor in the Quran for that Jesus found religious errors in the old Jewish scriptures).


We may add that originally Hubal was the moon god in Arabia, and sources say the Kabah originally was his temple and dedicated to him. But when Muhammad was born, al-Lah - sometimes named Allah - may have taken over as Arabia's main god. It is a bit ironic that a building dedicated to an old moon god (be it Hubal or al-Lah/Allah - because also Allah had been a moon god and the crescent moon still is his symbol) was and is the most holy place on Earth for a claimed only and claimed omnipotent god - and as ironic is the fact that if Muhammad had been born earlier, Islam's god might have been named Hubal, not Allah (Muhammad simply took over the claimed mightiest of the pagan Arab gods, and earlier Hubal was reckoned to be the most powerful one - and the moon god like al-Lah had been and perhaps still was).

########We have not mentioned much about al-Lah/Allah's position in the Kabah before Muhammad. The reason is that it is quite unclear. There are the two gods mentioned as the main god for the Quraysh tribe = the main god in the Kabah: Hubal, the moon god, and al-Lah/Allah - also a moon god, at least in southern parts of Arabia. There are clear indications, but no proofs, for that these two really and simply were two names for the same god - perhaps with Hubal as his "personal" name and al-Lah/Allah his title (al-Lah/Allah means "the god", or in this case "the main god").

There also are indications for that there were connections between Hubal and the Ba'al known from f.x. the Bible - same god and similar name, but in another variety of religion. If this is true, the Quran and Islam are way beyond the Milky Way when they forward claims like Zachariya prayed to Allah/Hubal/Ba'al, or that Jesus preached about Allah/Hubal/Ba'al, as in those times such connections would be known, even if they are forgotten today, and Ba'al represented the Devil to the Jews of those times.

To be a little more detailed:

Hubal was a central god in the old pagan Arabia. But his history and his role through the times are not entirely clear. Some sources claim he was a version of al-Lah/Allah, something Islam vehemently denies. Other sources tell. What is clear is that he like said was a central god in Mecca (his name also is found in what today is Syria and Iraq), and that he was a god for divination and a moon god. Like mentioned some sources say that the Kabah temple - later mosque - originally was dedicated to Hubal. The second part of his name, -bal, may indicate that he was one of the gods called Ba'l, or Ba'al, or Bal.

Hubal was an imported god in Mecca. The first place one finds him, is among the Nabateans - a North Arab people in what is now north Arabia, Sinai, Syria, and Jordan, and as far east as Euphrates. Also Islam agrees to that Hubal was an imported god. It is not clear exactly where the Hubal in the Kabah in Mecca was imported from, but it is clear it was from the north.

This raises 2 questions:

1: Was Hubal another name for al-Lah (also named Allah)? Al-Lah was known also among the northern Arab tribes, and there are several points pointing to that Hubal really was another name for him. It f.x. is highly unlikely that the Meccans (tradition tells it was done by a man named Amr ibn Luhayy) would buy a heavy and very expensive statue (made from red carnelian, but with his right hand from gold) and transport it hundreds of miles through desert and wilderness to Mecca, and there placed him in a big temple which seems to already have been dedicated to al-Lah (Karen Armstrong: At the time of Muhammad it was dedicated to the name Hubal, which seems to have been the name of the statue), unless it was a statue in some way connected to al-Lah. This also because in the old Arabia there usually was only one male god in a temple. There might be one or several female ones in addition, but only one male one.

There also is another point we have not been aware of: Normally one reads that in the Kabah there were 360 idols. (We have wondered how there could be space for that many - the Kabah is large, but not that large.) But it turns out that this is not quite correct - the majority were placed outside the temple. (Malise Ruthven: Islam in the world, p. 15). It was quite possible to have only one male god inside, and of course the main god. There is no doubt and it is not disputed that the statue of Hubal was inside the temple. There also is no doubt that he was the moon god.

It is known that al-Lah - earlier named al-Ilah - was a moon god. Even today al-Lah/Allah (and Islam) has the (crescent) moon as his symbol.

Further: It is told that 'Abd-al-Muttalib (the grandfather of Muhammad) once stood beside the statue of Hubal and prayed to al-Lah/Allah (both names were used at that time). Islam drops the rule that there should be only one male god in a temple/mosque, and tells that this must mean there also had to be an idol for al-Lah/Allah inside. He stood beside Hubal and prayed to another idol, they claim.

But if we stick to the rule that there only was one male god in a temple/mosque, this story simply tells that he stood near the statue and prayed to al-Lah/Allah via the statue named Hubal.

Further: When Muhammad cleaned out the Kabah when he took over Mecca, it is described that the idols outside, the idols of al-Lat, al-Uzza, Manat (the 3 main female goddesses), and the statue of Hubal were destroyed. But if there is told about the destruction of an idol for the pagan al-Lah/Allah, we have overlooked it. And if no such statue was destroyed, there was no such one - Muhammad had all idols/statues destroyed. This in case means that there only was one male god represented inside: Hubal/al-Lah/Allah.

##Our conclusion: There is no doubt and not disputed that al-Lah and Allah were two names for the same god. There is no doubt, and it is not disputed that Muhammad took over this god, declared he was the only real god, declared that he in reality was the same god as Yahweh, and accepted only the name Allah. When it comes to Hubal, we find that it is likely, but not proved - but far from disproved - that he was a third name for the god Hubal/al-Lah/Allah. (Islam strongly denies this, but have so weak facts that they have to use slander, etc. as strong arguments (repeated use of words like "missioners" is slander in this connection - and there are other negative words used.)

2: Is the name Ba'al involved?

Ba'al or Baal (or Bol) originally was a title - meaning something like "Lord" or "Master" - and was used connected to several gods around the inner end of the Mediterranean - the Levant and Asia Minor - and was also the name of the top god to the Canaanites and Phoenicians. The name is known from at least 1400 BC in f.x. Egypt. Over time it became parts of some names or daily names - it f.x. is likely that the name HuBal simply meant "the god", perhaps in the meaning "the main god". On the Arab peninsula this seems not to have been the case normally. But Hubal as mentioned was an imported statue from the north, and in the north Ba'al, etc. was well known. There are good indications for that Hubal derives from HaBaal or similar. Our conclusion here is that if it is not likely, then at least there is a good possibility that the name Hubal was connected to Ba'al.

If this is correct, this fact would have been known at that time and earlier, even though such details are forgotten now - the Jews would have known very well if the neighboring god al-Lah really was the same god as Hubal in another neighboring country, even before the name Hubal was exported to Mecca, and if Hubal had any relationship to the Ba'al concept. And if this is the case, Muhammad can just forget to claim that Yahweh = Allah (=Hubal/al-Lah/Allah) - for the Jews Ba'al was closely related to the Devil all the time from the old prophets and up. If Jesus had talked about any god related in any way to Ba'al, he had been a looser from the first day.


007 2/125a: "Remember We (Allah*) made the House a place of assembly for men and a place of safety - - -". Believe it or not, but in the entire Islam there does not exist one single real proof for that the god did this. It only is a claim - like everything else of any consequence in Islam. Also see 2/127a below.

008 2/125b: "Remember We (Allah*) made the House (Kabah*) a place of assembly for men and a place of safety - - -". This claimed oasis of safety is never mentioned in the Bible.

It also was not more of a place of safety, than Muhammad had an opponent killed there.

009 2/125l: "- - - they (Abraham and Ishmael*) should sanctify my House (Kabah in Mecca*) - - -." The Quran claims Abraham was in what was to become Mecca because he had left Hagar and Ishmael there years before - a claim never documented (and wrong according to the Bible), but which according to "The Message of the Quran" used to be an old Arab tradition (do an omniscient god have to listen to legends?). This is contradicting the Bible (1.Mos. 21/14): "She (Hagar*) went on her way and wandered in the desert of Beersheba". Beersheba was and is in the south part of Palestine - far from Arabia and Mecca. (Well, the name Palestine did not exist then. That name was introduced by Hadrian in 135 AD.)

What is more: According to the Bible (1. Mos. 25/18) Hagar - who was from Egypt - and her son settled near Egypt, not in Arabia: "- - - his descendants settled in the area from Havila to Shur, near the border of Egypt, as you go toward Asshur" (1.Mos. 25/18).

Islam never mentions the last part of this, and explains Beersheba away with claiming that all desert south of Beersheba used to be called "the wilderness of Beersheba" and the Paran desert they explain away with that there was a mountain in near Mecca named Paran - or originally Faran if our sources are correct - and what is the difference between "desert" and "mountain" - or between "Paran" and "Faran"? - voila: It must have happened in Arabia!! (It normally is called the wilderness or the desert of Paran by Muslims today - and on Internet you find a lot of claims for that this was the Biblical Paran. Take a look at them and see how likely it is that Abraham would take his large flocks of sheep, etc. through long distances of such landscape to reach an empty desert valley with no known water (the Zamzam was not discovered until a little later according to the Quran.))

The problem is that Arabia and Arabs are mentioned at least 15 times in OT (see 2/42d above) - so the makers of the OT clearly knew the difference between Beersheba and Arabia - and Egypt - and especially when so large distances were involved. Also they knew what a desert was, and the difference between a desert and a mountain. The Mormons claim Jesus visited USA - they have yet to prove it. Muslims claim Abraham visited Mecca - they have yet to prove it. But of course such claims make good anchors to "solid religious ground" as long as they can evade questions for proofs.

Science says - in their careful words: "It is highly unlikely Abraham ever visited Mecca".

Also see 2/125e above and 2/127a below.

010 2/125m: "- - - My (Allah's*) House (the Kabah mosque in Mecca*)". Never mentioned in the Bible, which it should have been if it was the central point on Earth also for Yahweh.

##011 2/127a: “And remember that Abraham and Ishmael raised the foundations of the House (Kabah*) (with this prayer): - - - “. Abraham never built the foundation of Kabah (and a contradiction; other verses say he built the building, not only the foundation of it) - and there are several reasons for this:

  1. He was born in Ur in Chaldea (if he really existed) in what is now south Iraq. Together with his father, (Terah according to the Bible (1. Mos. 11/26-32), Azar in the Quran (6/74)), he later travelled northwest up along the Euphrates valley to Haran in what is now north Iraq. Years later he continued south-southwest to Canaan and the town Sikem in what is now Israel (Sikem is north of Jerusalem. It is now named Nablus). That is to say he travelled along the so-called Fertile Crescent - the natural route when you travel with flocks of animals. The alternative was to take a shortcut through the Arab desert, but few of his numerous sheep and goats and cows would survive such a trip. He never visited Mecca on his way from Ur to Sikem. (Besides this was too early in the story - Ishmael was not born yet, and he is a part of the building of the Kabah according to the Quran).
  2. Abraham then settled in the western part of Canaan (now approximately Israel, Lebanon, parts of Syria, Jordan, and most of Sinai), whereas his nephew Lot settled in the Jordan valley and in the Arabah Valley south of the Dead Sea further east. Later Abraham moved south to Negev in Sinai. Negev today is most known for its desert, but not all was desert. All this is according to the Bible, but the Quran has no conflicting information, except that his father had another name, and that he quarreled with his father about Allah, which is not told in the Bible (on the contrary - they lived together for decades). The point is that between Canaan and Mecca and also between West Negev and Mecca are hundreds and hundreds of miles or kilometers of the tough and dry and hot Arab desert. Abraham was rich and had huge flocks of animals. He could not take those huge flocks of sheep, etc., through Lot's area and then through that desert, and especially so when there was no reason for doing it.
  3. Abraham lived hundreds of miles from Mecca - and had to cross harsh terrain to get to and from (see 2/125d above). Nobody builds a big temple for himself and his family at a place they can never or nearly never visit.
  4. Abraham was a nomad. Nomads do not have the know-how and technology to build large stone buildings.
  5. Hadiths tell than when Mecca restored the Kabah some years before Muhammad took over, they rebuilt it smaller than Abraham's(?) foundations. Which means that the nomad Abraham and his son built so big, that it was too big and too expensive for the full city of Mecca to rebuild in the same size. A nomad and his son building that big a temple for himself and his small family, even though he lived hundreds of miles away and at the very best hardly ever could visit the place? Of course you are free to believe it if you want.
  6. Abraham and Lot split up for practical reasons - Lot moved east whereas Abraham moved west (1. Mos. 13/11-12). Arabia and the place which was to become Mecca many generations later was to the east - much further east and south than even Lot settled.

    (1. Mos. 14/6): "- - - in the Hill country of Seir, as far as El Paran near the desert". Seir was the hilly country east of the southern end of the Dead Sea. To the west of this was the Arabah Valley (running from Elath to the Dead Sea), and across that valley you met the Paran Desert - quite a long way from Mecca.

  8. Abraham simply was not involved in the building of Kabah, and it is highly unlikely he ever visited Mecca and even the Arab peninsula. It looks like a fairy tale made up to give weight to Kabah and to Islam. And not least to give weight to Muhammad, who 2500 years later could tell he was direct descendant from Abraham - without the slightest written paper from all those years. 2500 years of mostly an-alphabetic nomads without any written history. Believe it if you want – and if you know who were all your forefathers the year 500 BC (= ca. 2500 years ago), as after 2500 years you have, and Muhammad had a large number of them (something like 80 generations give you quite a number of forfeiters, not only one - Abraham - like Muhammad claimed).

It also is worth adding that Muslims say that Mecca was where Abraham’s (or actually Sarah’s) slave, Hagar, and his and her child Ismail (Ishmael) were sent away from Abraham’s camp, that the two lived there, and that Abraham frequently visited them later. There is no source of information for this. The OT says they lived in Negev, which is weeks by camel from Mecca - and much, much longer for large flocks of sheep, goats, and cattle (American cowboys driving flocks of cattle to the railway, made 10-12 miles – 16-20 km - a day. The nomads in the south hardly moved any faster - - - if they could find water). In addition to the long time it would take, many animals hardly would survive the long trek through the harsh Arab desert with little food and hardly any water. And there was in addition no reason for him and his family to take such a dangerous and meaningless trip with their animals to a barren and dry valley. And as he never visited Mecca, he could not have left Hagar and Ismail there (this even more so as the Bible mention that Ishmael lived near the border of Egypt and got his wife from Egypt (see below) - - - and science and Islam both have proved that the Bible is not falsified (Islam has delivered a very strong proof by being unable to find even one clear falsification among all the tens of thousands of relevant old manuscripts and fragments) - the easy way out for Muslims when the Bible mentions things they do not like). If Islam wants to insist that he ever visited Mecca, they have to produce strong proofs, as it is extremely unlikely - and “special statements demands special proofs”. It is highly likely this just is a story made up or “borrowed” from f.x. Arab folklore to give the teachings of Muhammad credence.

One more fact: The Bible – a book which Islam insists is correct every time there is some text they like, but which may be the truth other times, too - says (1. Mos. 21/21): “While he (Ishmael*) was living in the Desert of Paran, his mother got a wife for him from Egypt”. Except for religious Muslims who strongly wishes this to be a reference to Paran or Faran near Mecca, all serious scientists say that this was Paran in or bordering Sinai - - - which also made it easier for his mother (who was from Egypt) to find him a wife from Egypt even though that made his children ¾ Egyptian and only ¼ descendants of Abraham’s stock (there is mentioned only one wife for Ishmael). Also remember that the old Egyptians were not Arabs, even if modern Egyptians often are called Arabs - where is the pure Arab blood of Ishmael's descendant?

Further (1. Mos. 25/18): “His (Ishmael’s) descendants settled in the area from Havilah to Shur, near the border of Egypt, as you go toward Asshur”. The border of Egypt means near the Red Sea or north of the Red Sea up to the Gulf of Suez. Just where scientists place Paran - it run from there and towards Elath. (It is a bit ironic that Islam say the Bible has the name correct, (but claim it is meaning Faran in Arabia), but all the rest of the information about place, wife from (neighboring) Egypt, etc. wrong. Though if you go looking, you will find that according to Islam, the Bible never has a mistake and is reliable when what it says fits Islam. Only when it tells things or facts that contradicts Islam, the Bible is falsified - or like here one simply omits the contradicting facts - - - which one safely can do, as hardly any Muslim knows the Bible well enough to see the cherry-picking of information, unless he has higher religious education). And NB: This was written 1000 or more years before Muhammad, and thus with no reason to place Ishmael far from Arabia if it was not the truth.

There also is another fact: The Bible reports on what Abraham built: He built an altar at Shechem (1. Mos. 12/6-7), an altar at Betel (1. Mos. 12/8), and an altar at Mamre, near Hebron (1. Mos. 13/18) - altars simply were a regular heap of natural, not artificially formed stones - - - and that is it. This is all the Bible tells he built (except for Sarah's grave, but that was not a building, but a cave (1. Mos. 23/19)). Then the Quran claims he suddenly built a huge temple (mosque), a big stone building which for one thing is far outside the know-how of a nomad to build, and for another thing is situated far away from all places Abraham ever was (as far as we can find the nearest he ever was Mecca, was Hebron, a good number of miles (multiply with 1.6 to get km) south of Bethlehem. And not least: The building of this big temple is not at all mentioned in the Bible, even if it had to take a number of years to build it - Solomon with his enormous resources and his army of highly qualified builders (though no jinns, etc. like the Quran claims) used 7 years to build his temple (1. Kings 6/38), and a big church in medieval Europe could take up to 30 years. These years of building the Kabah is not in any way mentioned in the Bible - neither the building, nor the years it took, nor when it was done, nor that he lived far down on the Arab peninsula for the many years it took for him to build such a big temple (36.2 x 42.2 feet = 11.03m x 12.86m. The height is not quite clear, as 2 different measures: 13.1m/43ft or 12.03m/39.5ft). Actually the time and resources it took also is not mentioned in the Quran - it just is indicated (though not directly said) that the Kabah was built during one or a few short visits to Mecca, and nothing about the skill and resources needed and the time it takes for building such a big temple/mosque. No comments - and none necessary.

Besides: To go all the way to Mecca as mentioned was too forbidding for a man with large flocks of animal – and there never was a reason to go there for Abraham. On the contrary: Little food for his animals, no water in Mecca before the Zamzam was found later (?) – and Ishmael living “near the border of Egypt”. He never was in Mecca and consequently never built the Kabah – the big temple that he anyhow did not have the know-how to build, and worse; could not use, because he lived the better part of 1000 km away (this even more so as he could not travel "as the crow flees", but had to go as the cow grazes). And one he did not need as it was far too big for his small family - 2 sons included Ishmael, one wife and some workers. This claim, too, is a clear contradiction to the Bible.

Also remember that science clearly says: "It is practically sure that Abraham never visited Mecca" (and the claim that he built the Kabah, they do not even bother to comment on). And: The ones writing OT some 9oo-1400 or may be a bit more years before Muhammad started his preaching - even if they had falsified the scriptures, they had no reason to falsify Abraham out of Arabia as Muhammad and his religion was unknown to them. And: Abraham as said had his pastures in the west whereas Lot had chosen the eastern area (1. Mos. 13/11-12) - i.e. according to the agreement between them Lot's pastures were around and south of the Dead Sea towards Acaba, whereas Abraham grazed his cattle in the western parts of Canaan and later in Negev, both nearer the Mediterranean Sea. Which means that to visit Mecca, Abraham had to move all his cattle from the Mediterranean region and all the way through Lot's area down to Acaba, and then through the forbidding desert to Mecca - a place in or near the Faran Wilderness, a wilderness which now Muslims now have renamed Paran (Muslim sources on Internet admits that the real Arab name was Faran - but you f.x. meet Muslims claiming that Faran just is the Arab name, and that it is named Paran by others - - - a well chosen "explanation" as Muslims saw the name Paran in the Bible, and said: This sounds very like Faran - it must mean Faran. And then they started to tell that Paran, yes, that was in Arabia near Mecca! And foreigners not knowing the real name, used - and uses - the new Arab name Paran as they did not and do not know it is wrong - very few non-Arabs know that the correct name of that wilderness is Faran). But just take a look at the pictures from Faran/Paran, Arabia (they today use only the name Paran to be able to claim that Ishmael was there according to the Bible) and see how tempting this area was for a nomad with lots and lots of animals - Abraham was rich. No rich nomad in his right mind would even think of moving hundreds and hundreds of miles - and more in kilometers - from good pastures in the west to dry desert - Mecca did not even have a well, because this according to the Quran was before the Zamzam well was found.

The scientists are right: Abraham never was in Mecca - and to comment on the claim that he built the Kabah is not even worth to bother about.

And see 2/125e above.

Added 5. Apr. 2013 AD: Quoted from the Scandinavian newspaper Aftenposten published today, where professor emeritus (in physics) Redvald Skullerud says: "(It is claimed that Abraham*) used camels for transport some 1200 years before the camel was introduced as a transport animal in the area, when the Assyrians started trade with South Arabia". As you see it is an accepted scientific fact that even though the dromedary was domesticated and somewhat used in South Arabia, it was not introduced further north until a long time - 1ooo+ years - after Abraham, and then as a transport animal. To use it as a riding animal came even later. And without the camel, it would be impossible for Abraham to go back and forth between Canaan and the dry desert valley where Mecca later came - crossing rough and forbidding big deserts. Abraham's claimed connection to Mecca is an impossibility.

And: It also is unlikely the Kabah is that old. There today exists methods for finding the age of the oldest parts of the building, but to our knowledge Islam has not tried to use them - too young age will make a problem (if Abraham ever lived, he lived around 1800-2ooo BC, and if the oldest parts of Kabah should turn out to be from say 100 AD, that would mean quite a problem. Another problem: Only Muslims are accepted in Mecca, and on background of f.x. al-Taqiyya (the lawful lie), who would 100% believe a Muslim saying he had measured the Kabah to be from ca. 1900 BC?

012 2/127d: "- - - Abraham and Ishmael raised the foundation of the House (Kabah mosque in Mecca*) - - -". This is never mentioned in the Bible, which it should have been if Yahweh and Allah had been the same god, and if the Kabah was so central and holy for this god like described in the Quran.

*013 3/96b: “The first House (of worship (of Allah*)) appointed for man was that at Bakkah. Wrong. Even if we should accept that Abraham “made the foundations” of the Kabah in Mecca, he lived (if he is not fiction) around 2000-1800 BC. At that time the first temples, etc. in f.x. Egypt, Turkey, and Mesopotamia were old. Today it is possible to find the real age of many things. It is symptomatic that as far as we know, Islam has not tried to see if it is possible to find the real age of the oldest parts of the Kabah. Wagging tongues insinuates that may be the reason is that they are afraid it is younger than 3800 years. - what if it turns out it is built around 100 BC - or AD - f.x? - or even later?

Islam also has one problem concerning measuring the age of the Kabah: They will have to use qualified western experts. If they use Muslim experts - who may be well qualified to do it - and find that it f.x. is 5630 years old, not one single soul will believe them unconditionally, because of "al-Taqiyya" - the lawful lie - which Muslims not only are permitted to use, but are advised to use "if necessary", when it comes to promoting or defending Islam. But non-Muslims are not permitted to visit Kabah. We may also add that it is further said that Abraham built on the even older ruins of a temple made by Adam - of course Adam like Abraham went all the way to the desert proto-Mecca and built a big temple he never could visit from his home a thousand kilometers off (Adam - and his Paradise - real or fiction, mostly are believed to have been placed somewhere in the rich wetlands in what is now South Iraq), but then Adam's temple was destroyed at the time of Noah - but as often before Muslims only claim, seldom/never prove, so believe it who wants.

(We may add that some Muslims have corrected this verse to that the Quran is talking about the first house of worship for a monotheistic god, but that is not what the Quran says. Besides: If the Quran or the Hadiths is correct and there have been prophets to all times and every people – 124ooo (= 620 at any time for 5ooo years or 12-15 for 160-200ooo years. No traces from them found. Believe it if you can.) the Hadith says – Islam will have a tough time to prove that not one single all those prophets or their followers in the very early time before Abraham, have never built even a small house for worship.” Also see 2/127a above.

One extra small detail: The foundations/temple the Quran claims Abraham built for his small family in Mecca - at the time of Abraham a desert and an empty valley - was so big that when the rich Mecca rebuilt it around 600 AD they could not afford to rebuild to the same size according to Hadiths. Any comments necessary?

By the way: The oldest known temple - building for revering one or more gods - is in Turkey, not in Arabia. Gobekli Tepe was built around 9ooo BC - some 7ooo years before Abraham and perhaps 5ooo years before Noah.

And not least: The Kabah temple was built as a temple for the pagan god al-Lah (or Hubal), not for the monotheistic claimed god Allah.

And a small thought: Did not even one of the other 124ooo prophets of the old build a temple for Allah? Not one trace from such a temple was ever found. Only Adam - a man with absolutely no experience of any kind of work and no helper (except Eve) - and Abraham - a Bedouin able to build stone altars and tents. But both did very well - building far too big temples for their need hundreds of miles and more in km away from home - across forbidding terrain. Well, Abraham surely had horses - not camels, but at least horses - but Adam had to walk on foot all the way, and back home the many years it took to build a big temple, and each time he wanted to visit this temple later, say 3 weeks walk each way carrying all the food and water he needed through the desert. Abraham surely could do it in half that time - if his horses found food and water.

Believe that Adam and/or Abraham built the Kabah if you are able to.

014 3/96d: "(The mosque Kabah is) full of blessing and guidance for all kinds of beings - - -". Only if it really is sanctified by a god and not just "represents" a made up one.

Besides, if this is true, Muslims are making a great sin by permitting only humans, and only Muslim humans, to visit it.

Kabah also is one of the really strong proofs for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god. For Allah it is the one and only super holy place on Earth. Yahweh does not even bother to mention that place, and exactly none of his prophets ever uttered a word about Kabah or even a whisper about wanting to make a pilgrimage there. (And remember: Both science and Islam have strongly proved that in spite of Muhammad's many but never proved words, the Bible is not falsified.

And not to forget: The Kabah originally was built as a temple for the pagan god al-Lah (or Hubal), not for the monotheistic claimed god Allah.

015 3/97e: "- - - pilgrimage thereto (Kabah*) is a duty men (what about women?*) owe to Allah - - -". There nowhere is given a good reason for this - neither for the pilgrimage nor for why one owes it to Allah. Many words, but no logical and good explanation. Except that it was a pagan tradition Muhammad took over.

###########Besides: What is the merit of a pilgrimage as Allah according to several verses in the Quran has predestined everything already and according to his Plan, which nobody and nothing can change anyhow? Oh, we know that Muslims just flee from questions like this, or seek mysticism: "It must be true even if it impossible, because Allah says so in the Quran". But our question stands anyhow.

016 14/37ba "- - - the Sacred House - - -". This refers to the Kabah Mosque in Mecca. To take its history according to Islam:

It was originally built by Adam. Now, science and for that kind religion, believe that if Eden ever existed, it was in the wetlands of what is now South Iraq. All the same Adam went all the way from his home in or outside Eden, to this dry desert valley some weeks grueling march to the west, and spent 20-30 years or more there chiseling stones (who made the chisels?), lifted the finished stone blocks alone onto the growing walls, and built a big mosque there. Later Abraham did similar. What for we have never heard any Muslim explain.

But during the Big Flood and during the millennia the mosque was destroyed. Some say that Noah repaired it, but that time passed and wore it down. When Ishmael grew old enough to be a helper - it is not said how old - Abraham, therefore, rebuilt the big mosque. No Muslim have ever explained us why he built it so big for just his own after all small family, or why he built it a thousand miles from where he lived - and thus a place where he and his family never could use it, and in a place where still nearly no-one lived.

We also points to the fact that neither Adam, nor Noah, nor Abraham had the camel. How did they then travel those long and many miles through the horrible Arabian Desert? No Muslim have ever been able to explain us this - but then most Muslims are not aware of the problem, as "the Religion of the Truth" never tells its followers that Abraham did not have camels. Also: From where did those 3 learn the technology to build big stone constructions? F.x. the largest "buildings" Abraham according to the Bible made, were a few altars. And what about the time used? - to build one of the big stone churches in Europe easily took 20-30 years for highly qualified and sizeable work force. The two armature stonemasons Abraham and Ishmael on the other hand seems to have built the Kabah in some weeks during one or a few of Abraham's claimed visits to see his son in that desert valley.

But new millennia took its toll. Some years before Muhammad became a Muslim, the Kabah was rebuilt. But the now rich merchant city could not afford to use the foundations of Abraham - that big he had built his far of and far into the wilderness mosque for his family. The rich Mecca had to build smaller.

There are times one starts wonder what brainwashing - included religious such - does to a man's brain and his ability to use it.

The very plain story is that neither Adam, nor Noah, nor Abraham, nor any other Biblical person ever was in the Mecca Valley, not to mentioned built anything on a mosque there. But it is good propaganda as long as anyone believes it. Also see 2/127a above.

It also originally was not built for Allah, and definitely not for Muhammad's version of al-Lah/Allah.

017 14/37c: "- - - Sacred House - - -". The Kabah in Mecca. Muhammad claimed its original foundation was made by Adam for revering Allah, Then rebuilt after the Big Flood by Noah, and its next one by Abraham and Ishmael = some 3800 - 4ooo years old. In addition to all the other improbabilities here which deny this, it today is possible to find out how old the oldest parts of Kabah are. As far as we know, Islam has not tried to find out - their own belief in the Quran is not strong enough to run the risk of finding an age of f.x. 1900 years.

Besides they have a problem: They will have to use a non-Muslim expert to find out. Because of al-Taqiyya no-one will really believe any Muslim claiming he has found an age of f.x. 3850 years for Abraham's stones (f.x. the one with his claimed foot-marks), and f.x. some 5700 for Noah's part if he was involved, not to mention if they found an age compatible with Adam's life.

Yet another small point: Islam seems to say that the Kabah was built something like 2130 BC. Science tells that if Abraham ever lived, he lived around 2ooo-18oo BC. How come?

018 14/37ca: "- - - Sacred House - - -". Kabah Mosque in Mecca. One of the really strong proofs for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god - and Jesus and the other Biblical prophets not in the same religion as Muhammad. For Allah this is the most holy place on Earth. For Yahweh the place is so totally without any meaning and so totally non-interesting that it is not even mentioned in the Bible - and not one of the old Biblical prophets, included Jesus, ever uttered the smallest wish even for a visit or a hajj there. If Yahweh and Allah had been the same god, Kabah had had the same value for both of them. And if the old prophets, included Jesus, had had books similar to the Quran like Islam claims, they had known about Kabah and Mecca and the duty of making at least one hajj - pilgrimage - there.

Like said: The Kabah is one of the strong proofs for that things are seriously wrong in the Quran.

019 17/1d: “- - - the Sacred Mosque - - -". Kabah in Mecca. But even how sacred it is, neither Kabah nor Mecca is mentioned anywhere in the Bible. AND NOT ONE OF THE Biblical PROPHETS, INCLUDED JESUS, EVER MENTIONED EVEN A WISH FOR VISITING THIS CLAIMED MOST HOLY PLACE ON EARTH - NOT EVEN A WISH FOR A HAJJ.

The extreme difference between Yahweh's and Allah's view on the Kabah is one of the really strong proofs for that the two are not the same god.

###### Besides: Is this the real story about the "night journey"?: Islamic sources Muslims never mention, indicate that this was a trip Muhammad made one night from the mosque in al-Jirana - a village some 9 miles/15 km from Mecca - to Kabah and back to al-Jirana. Science then thinks Muslims have made up stories and Hadiths based on the unclear words in 17/1. This is a very likely explanation, #####because if the fanciful story had been true, there is no chance it had not been thoroughly and often described in the Quran + frequently used as a proof for Muhammad's connection to the god, but it is NEVER mentioned other places in the book than in 17/1, in spite of that Muhammad and Muslims often had to use fast talk and "explanations" when followers or opponents or others asked for proof.

According to Islam Muhammad made 4 Umrahs - lesser pilgrimages. The third one according to Islam was from al-Jirana. We have not found out if this is the same trip to the Kabah or not.


It also is worth noticing that the story about Muhammad's trip to the heavens, likely is borrowed from Zoroastrianism. In the Pahlavi text called Arta (or Artay) Viraf - centuries older than Islam - there is a very similar story.

A final fact: The Quran tells that the Kabah is the oldest building for reverence in the world. But the temple Gobekli Tepe in Turkey dates from around 9ooo BC - some 7ooo years before Abraham and some 5ooo(?) years before Noah. And there may have been even older such buildings.

020 17/1f: "- - - the Farthest Mosque - - -” = the Dome of the Rock mosque in Jerusalem according to Islam. The problem is that this mosque did not exist at that time (621 AD). And: The old Jewish temple was destroyed by Titus and his Roman Army in 70 AD, and nothing of any consequence was built on this small mountain until the Dome of the Rock was built in 690 AD, some 620 years later - - - and some 65-70 years after surah 17 - “The Night Journey” - was dictated around or after 621 AD. There simply was no mosque to visit around 621-622 AD. Is this a later addition to the Quran? - after all the book existed in many versions which were copied and copied by hand and thus could change a little now and then, and it was not really finished until around 900 AD. (Muslims explains this away with that the remaining few stubs of walls of the old Jewish temple are what are meant, but that definitely is not what the Quran says.)

If the explanation in 17/1e just above is the correct one, Kabah in case was "the Farthest Mosque - which might well have been the geographic reality that early.

021 17/1g: “(Allah took Muhammad*) to the Farthest Mosque (and from there to Heaven according to Islam, #######but not according to the Quran*)” = the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem according to Islam – but Muslims still disagree on whether it was a real trip or a dream. Aisha tells in the Hadiths that he did not leave her bed that night, so most likely it was a dream (or even as likely a made up legend). There also is another fact: Humans does not go to Heaven until after the Day of Doom according to many places both in the Bible and the Quran. Muhammad met several humans on this trip, which would not be possible until after the Day of Doom - and the day of Doom had not happened in 621 AD naturally (and not later either) so this could not have happened in or around 621 AD if it had really happened - it has to have been a dream or a fairy tale/legend. But of course it would have had been more impressive if it had been a real happening. Also the information(?) had been more reliable - a dream after all is just a dream. May be because of this many Muslims cling to the claim that the trip was real. But then Muslims have a tendency to give wishful thinking a priority over facts and logic. Also see 17/1e above.

And one fact Islam and Muslims NEVER mention: There exist at least 2 Muslim manuscripts mentioning that Muhammad one night went from a small town with a mosque, al-Jirana, 15 km north of Mecca, up to Mecca/Kabah and back. This early (621 AD?) this likely was the farthest mosque for Muhammad - there existed only a very few at that time. It is likely it is this trip Muhammad


(The likely story is that Muhammad made the eventless journey from al-Jirana to the Kabah and back, and mentioned it in the surah - just a short thank you to Allah. The mysterious verse then piqued the fantasy of people, and in a culture where conspiracy theories, etc. were and are rampant, stories emerged. That they did not fit facts, mattered little - a flying horse, then fly the 571 miles/919 km from Medina to Jerusalem in an hour or so (necessary to reach everything in one night) = the speed of a modern jet passenger airplane (not aerodynamically possible for even a bird relying on wings + how did Muhammad manage to stay on the horse against that air pressure, and how was he able to breath?). Then climbing the stairs to the different heavens - heavens which are 100 years of travel apart according to Hadiths, and Heavens which do not exist according to even secondary - or primary - school astronomy. Then down again and the same ride back - and both coming and going there were several stops for talking with people who according even to the Quran were not there, because they still were in their graves, as the Day of Doom and the Resurrection had not and still today has not happened. Plus several conferences with the still not resurrected Moses and with Allah in order to make Allah step by step reduce his demand for prayers from 50 a day to 5 a day. All this in maximum some 10 hours - the night in Arabia. And afterwards not a word from Muhammad about his adventure, except for the short words in 17/1, and not one single word about even his meeting with the god!!

As for speeds: The maximum - not cruising, but maximum - horizontal speed for 3 of the fastest birds in the world: White-throated Nedletail 105 mph/169 km/h, Golden Eagle 80 mph/129 km/h, Peregrine Falcon 68 mph/110 km/h. The fastest long distance flyer is the Great Snipe with a cruising speed of 60 mph/97 km/h. Muhammad according to the tales was riding an animal similar to a horse, with a horse's aerodynamics, and all the same making 560 mph/920 km/h!!!

Believe in the Night Ride if you are able to. But if you are older than 6-7 years and past the most naive fairy tale age, such a belief will tell something about your brain.

And believe in Muhammad's not telling about such a trip if it had been real - a man of Muhammad's nature and with his need for proofs for his connection to the god - if you know nothing about human nature. This even more so as the night the legend had chosen - not the same night as the trip from al-Jirana - Aisha told he had been lying in her bed all night.


022 21/56a: "- - - your (peoples'*) Lord (Allah*) is the Lord of the heavens (plural and wrong*) and the earth - - -". Often claimed, but never proved. (In addition: In the Bible it is claimed that Abram/Abraham's god was Yahweh, not Allah - 2 different gods in spite of Muhammad's never documented claims (actually it is a disproved claim, as there are too many errors in the Quran), and as the teachings by far are too different for coming from the same god).

########We have not mentioned much about al-Lah/Allah's position in the Kabah before Muhammad. The reason is that it is quite unclear. There are two gods mentioned as the main god for the Quraysh tribe = the main god in the Kabah: Hubal, the moon god, and al-Lah/Allah - also a moon god, at least in southern parts of Arabia. There are clear indications, but no proofs, for that these two really and simply were two names for the same god - perhaps with Hubal as his "personal" name and al-Lah/Allah his title (al-Lah/Allah means "the god", or in this case "the main god" - or to be exact it means something like "the hidden one".

There also are indications for that there were connections between Hubal and the Ba'al known from f.x. the Bible - same god and similar name, but in another variety of religion. If this is true, the Quran and Islam is way beyond the Milky Way when they forward claims like Zachariya prayed to Allah/Hubal/Ba'al, or that Jesus preached about Allah/Hubal/Ba'al, as in those times such connections would be known, even if they are forgotten today, and Ba'al represented the Devil to the Jews of those times.


023 22/25da: “- - - the Sacred Mosque, which We (Allah*) have made (open) to (all) men - - -.” This is among the most solidly contradicted and abrogated verses in all the Quran. It was prohibited for non-Muslims from around 632 AD. Today it is prohibited for any non-Muslim to enter the Kabah, and wide areas around are more or less closed to non-Muslims. (And similar for Medina.)

We may add that originally Hubal was a main god - likely the moon god (though much is unclear about him) - in Arabia, and the Kabah originally was his temple and dedicated to him. But when Muhammad was born, al-Lah - sometimes named Allah - had taken over as Arabia's main god (or perhaps Hubal was another name for al-Lah/Allah). It is a bit ironic that a building dedicated to an old moon god (be it Hubal or al-Lah/Allah - because also Allah had been a moon god and the crescent moon still is his symbol) was and is the most holy place on Earth for a claimed only god and claimed omnipotent god - and as ironic is the fact that if Muhammad had been born earlier, Islam's god might have been named Hubal, not Allah (Muhammad simply took over the claimed mightiest of the pagan Arab gods, and earlier Hubal was reckoned to be the most powerful one - and the moon god like al-Lah had been and perhaps still was).

024 22/33d: “- - - their place of sacrifice is near the Ancient House.” Wrong. The place for sacrifice is in Mina, 5 - 6 miles (8 - 10 km) from the Kabah. It is in the Mecca area, but not near the Kabah.

025 22/40g: "- - - mosques, in which the name of Allah is commemorated - - -". Such mosques were unknown until after Muhammad started his new religion - no traces of such one from before that have been found in any science or by Islam anywhere (Muslims will claim the Kabah in Mecca, but Kabah in reality was a pagan temple until 630 AD when Muhammad conquered Mecca and threw out all pagan gods except al-Lah/Allah). A time anomaly.

026 24/36a: "(Lit is such a (religious*) Light) in houses, which Allah hat permitted to be raised to honor - - -". The meaning here is not quite clear - in any house for prayer/any mosque or just special ones, like Kabah or the great mosques in Medina or Jerusalem? Muslim scholars do not agree. Clear language in the Quran?

As for the value of prayers in Islam, also see 62/9c. And if you combine 62/9c with 67/9c - a strong one - you get something thought-provoking. (And relevant here: Muslims often are taught that a question or problem which really can have only one valid solutions, can have 2 or more true and correct solutions - Islam is forced to teach this, because if not many of the mistakes and contradictions in the Quran become too obvious. But this ONLY is true if parallel true solutions are possible. F.x. in cases where 2 or more possible solutions are mutually excluding each other, maximum 1 of the mutually excluding ones can be true. Islam teaches differently. It should be a bit thought provoking for Muslims, that just this "small" difference in theoretical thinking and teaching, was one of the reasons (there were several of course) for why Europe and the West exploded into the Technical Revolution, while the Muslim area stagnated). Two star examples are: 1): Full predestination is not possible even for an omnipotent god to combine with even the smallest piece of free will for man - the two are mutually excluding. Islam is teaching differently. 2): The same for full and unchangeable predestination long time before, combined with any claimed effect of prayers - the two are mutually excluding each other. Islam is teaching differently.)

Another fact: Today it is easy by means of statistical methods to check if prayers have any effect. (Let f.x. 1ooo persons each pray for one among 1ooo unknown persons sick or in other ways in need. compare the result after some time with a similar group of 1ooo who has not been prayed for, and see if there is a difference. If there is a positive difference, this would be a strong indication or perhaps even a proof for something - a proof Islam strongly and dearly needs, as they have not any proof for even a single of its central claims. But it has not even tried to make such a test. Why?)

####027 53/6-9: "he" in these 4 verses is the angel Gabriel. It may be noteworthy that even as often as Gabriel is mentioned as the one giving Muhammad his claimed messages, Muslim scholars say Muhammad saw him "in his real shape" only 2 times - once early during Muhammad's claimed mission, and once during Muhammad's claimed trip to the 7 heavens. (A trip which most likely was a dream or made up (little known Islamic scriptures + the lack of elaboration in the Quran strongly indicate that it is a story made up after the death of Muhammad - f.x. his pet wife and famous child wife Aishah, told that he never left her bed that night, according to Hadiths. Or even more likely it is a made up legend based on 17/1 and nothing else - a verse which likely talks about a trip Muhammad made from the mosque in a neighboring town with a mosque (al-Jirana some 9 miles/15 km from Mecca) to Kabah in Mecca - and definitely nothing about any ascension to the 7 heavens or meeting with Biblical prophets. Old Muslim scriptures indicates this - a fact Muslims NEVER mention. What is for sure is that if it had been real and even distantly as essential as claimed, it had been thoroughly described in the Quran - it had been a real proof (though without witnesses) for contact with a god.)

####It also might be noteworthy that there nowhere in the Quran is indicated that Gabriel = The Holy Spirit. This is a claim made up by later Muslims. It also is not possible for a clear mind to understand the Bible thus.)

####And then there is the curious fact that Muhammad never mention Gabriel until after he came to Medina. One may wonder why. It is psychologically impossible that he did not mention him to his surroundings if he really met Gabriel - it had been such a strong argument, and this even more so as he was strongly pressed for documentation for connection to a god. Yes, even if he was cheated by f.x. a mental disorder, but honestly believed he had met Gabriel, there is no chance he had not told about it - at that time he really needed all arguments he could find.

One possible explanation is that he did not get the idea of introducing Gabriel before.

028 106/3: "- - - the Lord of this House - - -". Allah (then still called al-Lah by the majority, at least if the surah is from Mecca) in the Kabah in Mecca.

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This work was upload with assistance of M. A. Khan, editor of and the author of "Islamic Jihad: A Legacy of Forced Conversion, Imperialism, and Slavery".