1000+ Comments on the Quran: Surah 55 -- AR-RAMAN (The Most Gracious)

Revelation: Period unknown

(See general comments on Surahs here: Introduction)


 

The quotes and comments

001 "In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful". Please read the surahs from Medina, the immoral parts of the Muslim moral code, the unjust/immoral parts of sharia, and the Quran's rules for lying, thieving/looting, enslaving, raids and wars, plus the rules for treatment of girls and women - free and captured - and see if you agree. Always when there is a distance between words and corresponding demands and deeds, we personally believe in the demands and deeds. Glorious words are cheap, demands and deeds are reliable. Glorifying words and claims are too cheap for anyone to use and disuse - when you read, judge from realities, not from propaganda.

002 55/1: "(Allah) Most Gracious!". See 1/1a above.

003 55/2: “It is He (Allah*) Who has thought the Quran.” No omniscient god ever was involved in a book of a quality like the Quran. See 13/1g, 40/75, and others.

##004 55/3: “He (Allah*) has created man”. At least not like told in the Quran - see 6/2b above. Besides man was not created according to science - he developed from an earlier primate. If Islam says he was created, they will have to prove it. And if they claim the creation was like described in the Quran, they will have to produce even stronger proof - - - after they first have found out which of the claimed may be 13 different ways described is the correct one.

005 55/4: "He (Allah*) has thought him (man*) speech (and Intelligence)". See 11/7a above.

006 55/5: "The sun and the moon follow courses (exactly) computed." For one thing this is not quite correct - there are elements of also in these courses - there f.x. is a 1% chance that Mars may come close enough to Earth in a few billion years to be destroyed by Earth's gravity - - - and with serious implications also for Earth and the Moon. But the main point here is that the information - even if it had been correct - is of no consequence and proves nothing for the religion as long as it is not proved that Allah did the calculations. The claim may be true or simply a bluff - like so many other unproved claims in the Quran: Perhaps true if the Quran for once tells the truth - if not; bluffs.

007 55/6: "And the herbs and the trees - both (alike) bow in adoration (to Allah*)". Animism - normally mostly found in the more primitive of pagan religions and in fairy tales. But then Arabia around 610 - 630 AD was quite primitive. In addition: Throughout history Islam has been unable to document one single occasion where a plant clearly has bowed in adoration to Allah or to anyone else.

008 55/7a: "And the Firmament has He (Allah*) raised high - - -". Wrong: The firmament has never been raised - at least not "raised high" as compared to the Earth.

009 55/7b: "- - - He (Allah*) has set up the Balance (of Justice)." Wrong if here is the slightest reference to the Sharia laws. Those laws contain some highly unjust points - and never try to compare it to the basis of all real inter-human morality: "Do against others like you want others do against you".

010 55/7c: "- - - (- - - Justice) - - -". Beware that when the Quran uses this word, it is in accordance with its own partly immoral moral code, partly unethical ethical code, very immoral code of war, partly immoral and unjust judicial code, etc.

011 55/8: "- - - transgress - - -". Beware that when the Quran uses words like this, it is in accordance with its own partly immoral moral code, and when used in religious connections it means everything which does not agree with the Quran.

012 55/9a: "So establish weight with justice and fall nor short in the balance". One of the positive points in the Quran, is its insistence on honesty in trade. Though our experiences in some Muslim countries about honesty in economy is rather mixed - f.x. the demand of 12 times the bus fare on a bus - and it was no "accident", way above the boat ticket IN THE OFFICE OF THE BIG INDONESIAN FERRY- AND SHIP COMPANY (both cases from Indonesia), just to mention two of very many personal experiences. Also ask a sailor what an "Arab salesman" means. Perhaps honesty is most essential towards Muslims?

A small PS here: Remember that Muhammad started as an Arab salesman.

013 55/9b: "- - - justice - - -". See 55/7c above.

014 55/10a: “It is He (Allah*) who has spread out the earth - - -”. See 11/7a above.

015 55/10b: “It is He (Allah*) who has spread out the earth - - -”. We know from other places in the Quran that the spreading out, was like a carpet - Muhammad believed the Quran was flat. Wrong.

016 55/11: "Therein is fruit of date-palms - - -". The indication here is that it is created by Allah. See 11/7a above.

017 55/12: "And corn (Americans: Not maize - that did not exist in the "old world" until well after 1492 AD*), with (its) leaves and stalks for fodder, and sweet-smelling plants". The indication here is that it is created by Allah. See 11/7a above.

#018 55/13: (A55/4): “Then which of the favors of your Lord (Allah*) do (will?*) you deny?” Part of the question here does not show in English, as “you” is the same in singular and plural. But Arab has both singular and plural and in addition dual – when speaking to or about two. And in this case it is used dual, so it is clear the question is asked to two. But which two? – after all it is a very essential question, and one should know who are the addressees. Islam guesses for the two groups, jinns and men, or may be men and women. But it only is guesswork as the text like so often in the Quran is far from clear. No god would use an unclear language.

#019 55/13: “Then which of the favors of your Lord (Allah*) do (will?*) you deny?” Perhaps not deny, but at least ask for proofs or that Allah has any favors to give at all - no such one has probably been given to anyone any time through history, and we do not like being cheated.

*0020 55/14a: “He (Allah*) created man from ringing clay like unto pottery”. Wrong - but somewhat funny. See 6/2.

021 55/14b: “He (Allah*) created man from ringing clay (= burnt clay*) like unto pottery”. But:

This is contradicted by 6/2, 7/12, 17/61, 32/7, 38/71, and 38/76 that tell man/Adam was made from clay, 15/26, 15/26, and 15/33 that tell man/Adam was made from sounding clay, 55/14 that tells man/Adam was made from ringing clay, 37/11 that tells man/Adam was made from sticky clay, 23/12, that tells man/Adam was made from essence of clay, 15/26, 15/28, and 15/33 that tell man/Adam was made from mud, 3/59, 22/5, 35/11, 40/67, that tell man/Adam was made from dust, 20/55 that tells man/Adam was made from earth, 96/2 that tells man/Adam was made from a clot of congealed blood, 16/4, 75/37, 76/2, 80/19, that tell man/Adam was made from semen (without explaining from where the semen came), 21/30, 24/45, and 25/54 that tell man/Adam was made from water (NB! NB! Not in water, but from water!), 70/39 that tells man/Adam was made from “base material”, and not to mention the greatest contradiction in this case: 19/9 and 19/67 which both tell that man/Adam was created from nothing.

(Also see verse 6/2 in the chapter about the 1000+ mistakes in the Quran.) (Strictly reckoned this contradicts 30 other verses. But minimum 11 contradictions.)

A man and a book not knowing more than this about how man evolved - is the rest they tell any more reliable? The nature seems to know the correct story much better. As said before: It may be cheats and deceivers not knowing to choose true “proofs” for their story behind it all.

**022 55/15: “And He (Allah*) created Jinns from fire free of smoke.” Jinns are beings from old Arab folklore, fairy tales and legends relating to the old Arab pagan religion. Is it just by co-incidence that these beings in Allah’s world – that according to the Quran are real beings – before only were known to the Pagan Arabs and not to any others, not even the real (?) prophets in the Bible? – and not to any of the other prophets the Quran claims were spread all over the world and to all times (when translated one often use the word "spirit" or something, but that is because we do not have a corresponding being and name - jinns are physical beings)? No-one but the old Arabs and their neighbors knew about jinns. In a religion for all the world and made by a god for the entire world, they never manifested(?) themselves any other place in the entire world than just in that area. What a lucky coincident that Allah finally choose just an Arab – Muhammad – for a messenger, so that he could tell the rest of the world what part the jinns play in the real(?) religion. But it also is strange that except for things borrowed from the Bible and a little from neighboring religions, there is nothing about or from the rest of the world in the Quran – and the Quran practically has no stuff from those pasts of the world, even though there have been prophets all over and to all times, according to that book. (As said Jinn often is translated with spirits (god or bad) - but it is wrong, because the Arab word for spirits is "ruh". Also other words for supernatural beings from other cultures are used for translation, but it is symptomatic that top translators do not translate the word, but use the Arab one - Jinns are a group of beings special to Arab folklore and legends, and even the top translators do not find equivalent beings or names in western languages.)

016 We may add that fire free of smoke does not exist (but the smoke sometimes may be in the form of gas and be invisible), as fire simply is smoke so hot that it emits light.

023 55/16: Similar to 55/13 above.

024 55/17: “He (Allah*) is the Lord of the two Easts and the two Wests.” This cryptic sentence means the north-most and the south-most point of the sun during a year (the equinoxes) – in east and west. (We mention this because some Muslims try to find ways to use this sentence to "prove" that the Quran says the Earth is globular.)

025 55/18: Similar to 55/13 above.

026 55/19a: "He (Allah*) has let free the two bodies of flowing water - - -". See 11/7b above.

027 55/19b: "- - - the two bodies of flowing water - - -". Normally with such expressions the Quran means the salt and the sweet water.

028 55/20: "Between them (salt and sweet water*) is a barrier which they (salt and sweet water) do not transgress". This is a doubtful claim - salt water becomes steam which becomes clouds which rains down as sweet water, and sweet water streams into the sea and becomes salt water.

029 55/21: Similar to 55/13 above.

030 55/23: Similar to 55/13 above.

031 55/24a: “And His (Allah’s) are the Ships sailing - - -”. We never heard about a god owning ships. It cannot be literally meant. But the Quran says it is to be read literally.

032 55/24b: "- - - (ships*) lofty as mountains - - -". Wrong - ships are not that big. But desert dwellers far from the sea might have "special" ideas about their sizes.

033 55/25: Similar to 55/13 above.

034 55/26: "All that is on earth will perish". This is one of the many unclear sentences in the Quran. It may refer to natural death or to the Day of Doom. 

035 55/27a: "But will abide (for ever) the Face of ty (Muslims'*/humans'*) Lord (Allah*) - - -". = Allah (or literally his face) will live forever.

036 55/27b: "- - - (Allah*) - full of Majesty, Bounty and Honor". Often claimed - but f.x. 1/1a seriously questions this. Though "bounty" Allah has plenty of as long as Muslims can steal/rob it from non-Muslims "good and lawful".

037 55/28: Similar to 55/13 above.

038 55/29a: "Of Him (Allah*) seeks (in need) every creature in the heavens (plural and wrong) and on earth - - -". One of the many never proved claims in the Quran. Also see 11/7a above.

039 55/29b: “- - - heavens - - -.” Plural and wrong. See 2/22d.

040 55/29c: "- - - every day in (new) Splendor doth He (Allah*) (shine)!" No comment until Islam produces at least a small proof for that Allah really exists and is a major god or at least a god and really is the maker of this, none of which Muhammad and Allah were ever able to prove in spite of repeated requests. Muhammad only was able to produce excuses and "explanations" for being unable to prove even a nanometer of his claims.

041 55/30: Similar to 55/13 above.

042 55/31a: (A54/14): “O both ye worlds”. Men and jinns? Men and women? Or something else? Who knows? See 55/13 above. And these variants - as usual - also are in the Arab text, as the relevant word(s) there has/have more than one meaning. Allah (?) really uses a clear language in the Quran.

*043 55/31b: “- - - both ye worlds!” According to “The message of the Quran”, the Arab word that is used here – “thaqalan” (not plural, but dual of “thaqal”) does not really mean “worlds”, but is normally translated with “humans and invisible beings”, but may also mean “men and women” in other connections.

044 55/32: Similar to 55/13 above.

045 55/33b: "- - - Jinns - - -". A being from old Arab pagan religion (like much more in Islam), folklore, and fairy tales, taken over by Muhammad and his new religion. They are made from fire, and thus material (fire = smoke so hot that it emits light, and smoke is material - in Islamic law there also are laws for marriage to a Jinn, which would not be practically possible if the Jinn was not material), but existed only in and around Arabia at the time of Muhammad - an Arabism. They seem not to be of good nature, because mostly they end up in Hell. It seems to be possible, though, for them also to end in Heaven, but not one word is said in the Quran of their possible life there.

046 55/33a: “- - - heavens - - -.” Plural and wrong. See 2/22d.

047 55/33c: "Not without authority - - -". Here is implicated that it means authority from Allah, but the bitter truth is that may be there exists no Allah, and even if he exists, maybe he has no power. Nothing is proved about Allah or his powers - there only are loose claims. Many believes - some even strongly - but it only is belief, not knowledge.

048 55/34: Similar to 55/13 above.

049 55/35a: "- - - (O ye evil ones twain!) - - -". See 55/31a +b above.

050 55/35b: "A flame of fire (to burn) and a smoke (to choke) - - -". Hell.

051 55/36: Similar to 55/13 above.

052 55/37: (A55/18): “When the sky is rent asunder (at the Last Day*), and it becomes red like ointment”. But the Arab word “dihan” has more meanings (Tabari), and the sentence may end “- - - like (burning) oil”, or “- - - like freshly tanned leather”, or “- - - like red leather” (Zamakhshari), or “like the dregs of olive oil” (Raghib). A detail – even a small detail. But would a god leave even small details to guesswork? At least it is far from “clear language”.

053 55/38: Similar to 55/13 above.

054 55/39a: "- - - that Day - - -". The Day of Doom.

055 55/39b: "- - - Jinn - - -". See 55/33b above.

056 55/39c: "- - - sin - - -". Beware that when the Quran uses words like this, it is in accordance with its own partly immoral moral code. We also may mention that just this word often covers very different deeds, acts, words, and thoughts in the Quran and Islam, than in more normal religions (Islam is a religion of war - in spite of its loud slogans), not to mention how much its meaning in the Quran often differs from the basic of all human moral; "do against others like you want others do against you". Read the surahs from Medina and weep.

One small remark: As Yahweh's religion and f.x. moral code at many points are totally different from Allah's, you may qualify for Yahweh's Paradise even if Muslims condemn you to Hell - if both exist. One more of the 100% proofs for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god.

057 55/40: Similar to 55/13 above.

058 55/41a: "- - - the sinners will be known by their Marks - - -". Does an omniscient god need marks to recognize sinners?

059 55/41b: "- - - sinner - - -". Beware that when the Quran uses words like this, it is in accordance with its own partly immoral moral code. We also may mention that just this word often covers very different deeds, acts, words, and thoughts in the Quran and Islam, than in more normal religions (Islam is a religion of war - in spite of its loud slogans), not to mention how much its meaning in the Quran often differs from the basic of all human moral; "do against others like you want others do against you". Read the surahs from Medina and weep.

One small remark: As Yahweh's religion and f.x. moral code at many points are totally different from Allah's, you may qualify for Yahweh's Paradise even if Muslims condemn you to Hell - if both exist. One more of the 100% proofs for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god.

060 55/41c: "- - - sized by their forelocks - - -". An Arab expression - an Arabism -meaning taken complete control over by someone else, like when leading a tamed horse by its forelocks. Would a god aiming for all the world use Arabisms?

061 55/42: Similar to 55/13 above.

062 55/44a: “In the midst of boiling hot water will they (sinners in Hell*) wander around”. Another variety for a change. Normally Muhammad claimed they wandered around in fire.

063 55/44b: (A55/21): “In the midst of boiling hot water will they wander round!” But once more: Arab words may have more than one meaning. “Boiling water” – “hamim” – also may mean f. ex. “burning despair” or “biting cold”. Allah’s (?) correct meaning may be f.x. “- - - in the midst of burning despair will they wander to and fro”. Anyone can pick the meaning they prefer. And these variants also are in the Arab text, as the relevant word(s) there has/have more than one meaning. Allah (?) really uses a clear language.

064 55/45: Similar to 55/13 above.

065 55/46a: “But for such as fears the time when they (Muslims*) will stand before (the Judgment Seat of) their Lord (Allah*), there will be two Gardens - - -“. This is in the Quran's paradise - see 10/9f above.

066 55/46b: “- - - the time - - -". Here: The Day of Doom.

067 55/46c: “But for such as fears the time when they (Muslims*) will stand before (the Judgment Seat of) their Lord (Allah*), there will be two Gardens - - -“. There are more - see 55/62 below.

068 55/46d: “But for such as fears the time when they (Muslims*) will stand before (the Judgment Seat of) their Lord (Allah*)

069 55/46e: (A55/22): “- - - there will be two Gardens (two Paradises*) - - -.” This is one of the mysterious mysteries in the clear-spoken Quran, and Islam has for 1400 years been guessing at what it means. F.x. “a Paradise for their (good Muslims’*) doing good deeds, and another for their avoiding of sins” (Zamakhshari), or “a Paradise comprising both spiritual and physical joys, as if it were two Paradises” (Razi), or a wandering between the two gardens the Paradise is said to contain. Yes, it is a very clear and concise language you find in the Quran. This even more so as according to the Quran there are at least 4 gardens (see 55/62 below) and according to Hadiths there may be 6 or even more.

070 55/47: Similar to 55/13 above.

071 55/48: (A55/23): “- - - Containing all kinds (of trees and delights) - - -.” But we are back to the concise and distinct Arab language: The word “fann” (plural “afnan”), has many meanings: “kind”, “mode”, “manner”, color”, “hue”, “a wonderful thing” and more, and the plural form “afnan” may also mean “branch of a tree”, etc. which gives associations to a rich nature, cool shade, lots of different fruits, etc. Just go on guessing – this sentence has a number of possible meanings, so just guess for what kind of paradise you prefer. But remember that is only is guesswork. And these variants of course also are in the Arab text, as the relevant word(s) there has/have more than one meaning. Allah(?) really uses a clear language in his(??) Quran.

072 55/48-60: Something like 47/15a-h + the houris.

073 55/49: Similar to 55/13 above.

075 55/51: Similar to 55/13 above.

076 55/52: "- - - Fruits of every kind - - -". The Quran's and Islam's paradise is like a pore and naive primitive desert dweller's dream about an emperor's luxury life and harem on Earth - - - yes, plus the god in the not too far distance. Very different from Yahweh's paradise where you according to the Bible become like the angels (f.x. Matt. 22/30) - one of the solid proofs for that Yahweh and Allah are not the same god.

077 55/53: Similar to 55/13 above.

078 55/54a: "They (good Muslims in Paradise*) recline on Carpets (also Paradise is Arabian style*), whose inner lining is rich brocade - - -". Earthly royal style - - - and very different from Yahweh's Paradise where you become like the angels (f. ex. Luke 20/36). Yahweh and Allah the same god? Guess 3 times.

079 55/54b: "- - - the Fruits of the Garden - - -". See 55/52 above.

080 55/55: Similar to 55/13 above.

081 55/56a: "In them (the gardens of Paradise*) will be (Maidens), restraining their glances, whom no man or Jinn before has touched". A nice Paradise for primitive men - and women does not count much in the Quran - but totally different from Yahweh's Paradise - only this verse proves so formidable difference to Yahweh (see f. x. Luke 20/36) that this alone proves Yahweh and Allah cannot be the same god - and then there are all the other differences in addition.

082 55/56b: “In them (the Gardens of Paradise*) will be fair (Companions (houris*)), good, beautiful - - -.” Houris are a bit special kind of women, but the “fact” that they are given to the men arriving in Paradise as repayment for good (?) deeds, tells miles about Islam’s view of women. The servile nature of the houris – the ideal women – in the descriptions, also tells volumes about Islam’s point of view on how women shall behave.

There is no explanation in Islam from where the houris come - they simply are there. But the idea about houris as reward in paradise for warriors, it seems Muhammad has "borrowed" from the old Persian pagan religion - see 55/56e below (nearly everything in Islam is borrowed from somewhere, and strangely(?) enough only from in and around Arabia - Allah had few, if any new ideas or ideas from other parts of Earth for his religion).

083 55/56c: "- - - (Maidens), chaste - - - whom no man or Jinn before them (the Muslims in Paradise*) has touched - - -". The houris are virgins at arrival, but hardly for a long time.

Compare this to f.x. Matt.22/30: "At the resurrection people will neither marry nor be given in marriage; they will be like the angels in heaven". 200+% sure that Yahweh and Allah do not run the same paradise, and thus are not the same god. And as these are the words of Jesus: As sure that Jesus and Muhammad do not belong in the same moral world neither in this nor in a possible next life. A lot of things in this world are not true even if they are repeated often - f.x. that Jesus and Muhammad belong to the same line of prophets (in addition to that Muhammad was no real prophet - he had not the gift of prophesying).

084 55/56d: "- - - Jinns - - -". See 55/33b above.

**085 55/56e: The Muslim Paradise is quite like the Zoroastrian one (Zoroastrians mainly lived in Persia, one of the big trading partners for Arabia. The Arabs knew that religion – hardly as well as the Mosaic or the Christian religions, but at least superficially.) - the houris there were named paaris. Also see 19/71 above. (Also the Jewish and Christian - and the Muslim one - hell may have got some inspiration from the Zoroastrian one.)

086 55/57: Similar to 55/13 above.

087 55/59: Similar to 55/13 above.

088 55/60: "Are there any Reward for Good - other than Good?" Yes, at least in two cases: When what you believe is good, in reality is bad. Some of what Muhammad claims in the Quran is "good and lawful", in reality is bad - and even Muslims are able to see a lot such points if they start from: "Do against others what you want others do against you". And: No matter how good you behave, you end in no paradise if you believe in a religion not from a real god. Muslims is in a bad start position here, as they believe in a book not from any god - too many errors, etc. for any god to be involved in the Quran.

089 55/61: Similar to 55/13 above.

090 55/62a: “And besides these two (see 55/46a+b+c*), there are two other Gardens - - -”. Paradise for normal humans is split in at least 4 gardens (perhaps more according to Hadiths), and there they are different according how good a Muslim and how fierce a warrior you have been in this life – the more according to Muhammad’s ideals you have lived and fought, the better garden you will end up in. But all the 4 are paradises with two springs each, plenty of fruits, rich carpets for resting on and plenty of women/houris “- - -(Maidens), chaste, restraining their glances, whom no man or Jinn before them (the Muslims*) has touched (= virgins*) - - -”. Royal earthly standard of living and virgins for free use at your convenience.

The difference in the “geographical” description seems to be that the best gardens have even more plentiful water, and they are dark green from the abundance of water – really a paradise for poor and primitive desert dwellers. It does not take much to make a perfect paradise for naïve and primitive people.

It still is said little about how Paradise is for children and women, included the houris.

(We may add that according to Hadiths the Nile and the Euphrates starts in the Gardens of Paradise. Unbelievable? Yes, but it is a fact that Hadiths say so).

091 55/62b: (A55/28): “And besides these two, there will be two other Gardens - - -.” Another conundrum for Islam: What for? There also should have been a “Why”, but this we have not run across. So “What for?” May be for the lower quality good Muslims – the ones who have obtained less merit? – or may be a symbol for “many gardens” – but the Quran only mentions these 2 + 2, and do not even hint about more ones (though Hadiths do). Or - - -? Your guess is as good as anybody’s because nobody knows. As indicated before: The Quran uses a clear and concise language giving only exact information.

092 55/63: Similar to 55/13 above.

093 55/64-76: Similar to 47/15a-h + 55/48-60 but even a degree better.

094 55/65: Similar to 55/13 above.

095 55/66: "In them (each) will be two Springs - - -". See 55/50 above.

096 55/67: Similar to 55/13 above.

097 55/68: "- - - fruits, and dates and pomegranates - - -". See 55/52 above.

098 55/69: Similar to 55/13 above.

099 55/70: "In them (the gardens*) will be fair (Companions), good, beautiful - - -". These are the famous houris. There is nowhere - absolutely nowhere - in the Quran said anything about how the men's wives like these beautiful virgins as playmates for their husbands. And also absolutely nowhere how the houris like to be sex toys for - often - rough, primitive warriors. Such details seem to interest neither Allah nor Muhammad. Also see 55/56a-c above.

100 55/71: Similar to 55/13 above.

101 55/72: Similar to 55/56a-c and 55/70 above.

102 55/73: Similar to 55/13 above.

103 55/74: "(Houris*) Whom no man or Jinn before them has touched." In the Quran it is not directly said that the houris are for sex. But what do you believe young - and not young - primitive warriors thought about when they were told details like this? Also see 55/56a-c and 55/70 above.

104 55/75: Similar to 55/13 above.

105 55/76: (YA5220): “- - - reclining on green Cushions - - -“. But the Arab word “rafraf” may also mean “meadows” = “- - - on green meadows”.

106 55/77: Similar to 55/13 above.

107 55/78: "- - - (Allah*), full of Majesty, Bounty and Honor". Please read 1/1a above and see if he deserves it - if he exists. As for bounty, he may have plenty as long as Muslims can steal/rob it from non-Muslims "lawful and good".

Surah 55: Sub-total 107 + 17.929 = 18.036 comments.

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NB: If you find any mistakes anywhere, please inform us. If it is a real mistake, it will be corrected. Please also inform us if we have overlooked points or errors.


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This work was upload with assistance of M. A. Khan, editor of islam-watch.org and the author of "Islamic Jihad: A Legacy of Forced Conversion, Imperialism, and Slavery".