Comments in this book numbered by 3 numbers (included 00 or 0) a few places followed by one small letter = clear cases. Comments numbered by 00 or 0 followed by 1, 2 or 3 letters (big or small) = likely cases.
In the Quran there frequently are verses that “collide” or verses where one is stricter than the other. In those cases one uses the Islamic abrogation rule: The youngest verse normally is the one that counts - the older one is “exchanged for a better (?) one” - even the Quran itself mentions this. You meet Muslims protesting that such a rule exists, because that means that Allah had problems making up his mind or was not wise enough to make the rules good enough at once and from the start - he had to try and fail. In a way quite correct – it seems that he was not - - - but no matter how they protest or explain, some verses (some hundreds) are abrogated anyhow. This they try to explain away f. ex. with that Allah did not change the rules, just made them stricter - the rules for alcohol are often used as an example. But for one thing only in some cases it is possible to explain things away that way, and for another the problem still stands: Allah had to try and fail to find the best rule – to strengthen a rule also is an abrogation. The problem for readers, are to know which are older than which, as it is mostly not said in the Quran. Abrogation also is deeply integrated in mainstream Islam and in Muslim law. The protests are just based on refusal of facts + wishful thinking.
Most verses from the Mecca period (610-622 AD) which are mild towards non-Muslims are f. ex. overridden – abrogated - by verses of lawful robbery, hate, rape, blood and killing from the Medina period (622-632 AD). When it comes to subjects like war, treatment of non-Muslims, and connections with non-Muslims, not to mention in Muslim law, it therefore is very essential for us - and for Muslims - to know which verses counts, and which not (or even less), and which overrides – abrogates - which. Because of this we have found this table. BUT WE STRESS VERY STRONGLY THAT IT SHOULD BE USED WITH THE GREATEST CARE, PARTLY BECAUSE IT IS NOT A CANONIZED ONE, AND PARTLY BECAUSE EVEN ISLAM DOES NOT KNOW THE EXACT AGES OF MOST OF THE SURAHS. There is sure to be at least minor mistakes. More exact lists are said to exist (f. ex. one made by Th. Noldke), but we have been unable to find any of them yet. If/when we find a better one, we will adjust this list. But it will make no great difference, as the main and great divide is between before and after the flight from Mecca in 622 AD, and that divide any list has mainly correct. Until we find one that is better, we will use this one. The result will be at least roughly correct.
The left and the middle of the table list the surahs by approximate age + the serial numbers we use for (approximate) age references. The far right shows which surah has which age and serial number – cross references. Beware that the list to the right - 2 columns - has no direct connection to the rest. It is just placed there because it was convenient.
In the chapter about war/jihad and in a few other chapters where we wanted to show the devellopment of Islam, the surahs are arranged by the serial numbers because they very approximately range the surahs according to age. There it may be easier to find the surah you look for, by first finding the serial number. NB: As the main overview is ranged by age, it also automatically is ranged by serial numbers – see the last column in that overview. To find the serial number of a surah, see the cross reference. The serial numbers at the same time tell (approximately) which surahs that are older and younger than each others.
NB and once more: The two last columns is a totally different list, the cross reference - placed there only for the sake of convenience.
The surahs and serial numbers reckoned in chronological order by approximate age: Cross references:
|Surah no.||Made year (approxim.)||Exceptions verse||Comments||Serial no.||Surah no.||Serial no.|
|096||610||V.6-19 later||No.1 (July/Aug 610)||001||001||002|
|068||611-614||Likely no 3.||003||003||092|
|073||611-614||Likely no 4.||004||004||096|
|111||611-614||Likely no 6.||006||006||063|
|081||611-615||Likely no 7.||007||007||062|
|087||611-615||Likely no 8.||008||008||090|
|092||611-615||Likely no 9.||009||009||105|
|089||611-615||Likely no 10.||010||010||066|
|094||611-615||Just after 93||012||012||068|
|103||611-615||Shortly after 94||013||013||109|
|109||611-615||Shortly after 107||019||019||035|
|091||611-615||Shortly after 97||021||021||070|
|085||611-615||Shortly after 91||022||022||047|
|095||612-615||Shortly after 85||023||023||073|
|053||612-615||V. 13-18 (later +?)||Shortly after 112||025||025||033|
|054||614?||Just after 053?||027||027||043|
|077||614||Between 104 and 50||029||029||076|
|090||614-615||Just after 50||031||031||038|
|36||614-615||Just before 25||032||032||074|
|025||614-615||Same time as 19||033||033||095|
|035||614-615||Between 25 and 19||034||034||058|
|019||614-615||Just after 19||035||035||034|
|020||614-615||Late 614/early 615||036||036||032|
|027||615-616||Shortly after 26||043||043||051|
|022||616 app||39+49=622, some 624||Medium Mecca||047||047||078|
|040||616-618||Group of 7 (40-46)||048||048||100|
|041||616-618||Just after 40||049||049||106|
|042||616-618||Group of 7 (40-46)||050||050||030|
|043||616-619||Group of 7 (40-46)||051||051||059|
|044||616-619||Group of 7 (40-46)||052||052||075|
|045||616-620||Group of 7 (40-46)||053||053||025|
|069||618-619||Just after 67||055||055||110|
|046||620||Group of 7 (40-46)||056||056||041|
|072||620||About time of 46||057||057||103|
|034||620?||Shortly before 17||058||058||099|
|079||620-622||Just after 78||061||061||093|
|006||621||Except two or three verses||063||063||094|
|028||621||V.85 in 622?||Just before 17||064||064||111|
|017||621 or later||Aft. 28, bef.11,12,13||065||065||097|
|010||621||Between 17 and 11||066||066||101|
|011||621||V.12, 17, 114 later?||067||067||054|
|012||621||Shortly after 11||068||068||003|
|015||621||Just after 12||069||069||055|
|014||621-622||Just after 71||072||072||057|
|032||621-622||Just after 23, Mecca||074||074||015|
|052||621-622||Just after 32?||075||075||016|
|029||621-624?||Many unclear||Late Mecca or early Med.||076||076||112|
|018||622||Just before 16||077||077||029|
|016||622||Mecca (same time as 72)||078||078||060|
|100||?||After 103 sometime||080||080||005|
|084||622||Just after 82||085||085||022|
|083||622||V.1-4 Medina||Perhaps last Mecca||086||086||028|
|047||622||V. 13 Mecca||1. Partly in Medina?||087||087||008|
|002||622-624||V.275-281 in 632||1.Full in Medina||088||088||040|
|008||624||Some v. later||090||090||031|
|003||625||No. 2 in Medina?||092||092||009|
|061||625-626||Late 625 or early 626||093||093||011|
|063||625-626||Late 625 or early 626||094||094||012|
|033||625-629||Many diff. years (627?)||Medina||095||095||023|
|004||626||V.58 later, (some v. before?)||096||096||001|
|024||627-628||Late 627 or early 628||098||098||113|
|058||627-628||Likely early 628||099||099||114|
|060||629-630||Likely early 630||102||102||017|
|005||632||Some v. earlier||One of latest||107||107||018|
|110||632||The last surah||108||108||104|
|013||?||(Much?) after 17||109||109||019|
|055||?||Just after 13||110||110||108|
A reminder: Using this table one should be very careful not to make too strict conclusions from years close together, as the years often are not exact, and as there may be other mistakes - Islam sometimes have to guess the age from wage points. But for years wider apart, it is more reliable as to which is oldest and which is youngest. And mostly Islam is able to decide between the Mecca and the Medina periods.
As for seeing tendencies in the development of Islam – and in Muhammad - this table is more than sufficient. F. ex. you will see that Muhammad - or Allah - grows stricter and more spiteful and Islam more inhuman and bloody from 622 AD, as the years rolls by and he gains more power (the fact that he was not accepted by the Jews, may also have counted after coming to Medina - the rejection itself or the lost hope for more power as a leader also for them).
Less tolerance of “infidels”, more “no friends with ‘infidels‘”, more hate and suppression against “infidels”, more slaves and rape, more warlike against “infidels” - may be also stricter towards his followers. Why should Allah change that much over - for a god - no time? But a human can change like that in 23 years and even in much shorter time - power leaves its traces, and so do greed and lust for power. “Power corrupts, absolute power corrupts absolutely”. Muhammad and Islam changed fast and much after the flight to Medina in 622 AD, and Muhammad’s start as a thief/robber/extorter/rapist/murderer and later warlord.
Because it is difficult to see which verses are oldest and youngest reading the Quran in ordinary succession of the surahs, we use the numbers above, and place them according to age, the oldest first, in the chapters about “tolerance”, “ Muslims better“, “No friends”, “Hate against and treatment of ‘infidels’”, and “War/holy war/jihad”. Then also you can see the development and degradation of Muhammad and his religion.
We also have been told (but yet not checked) that he was not brazen enough to really use the title “prophet” until late in life, as he really was not a prophet. (He never pretended or even claimed to have the gift of being able to make prophesies – the minimum requiremet for being a prophet. That only was an imposing and impressive title he “borrowed”. Also see chapter I/7).
NB: If you find any mistakes anywhere, please inform us. If it is a real mistake, it will be corrected.
NB, NB, NB:
1. Read first the 2 small chapters "Some Essentials for how the Quran is to be read and understood" (VII-10-1) and "The Quran is to be understood literally if nothing else is indicated" (VII-10-2).
2. http://www.1000mistakes.com is blocked by many Muslim authorities. To debate with persons in such areas, cut and paste what you want from the pages and send it under titles different from http://www.1000mistakes.com.
3. http://www.1000mistakes.com is one of 9 pages which Muslim organisetions warned especially against in 2008 and 2009 - it could make especially procelytes lose their belief in Islam; correct and "down-to-the-earth" information works. In this connection it is worth noting that in the "warning" http://www.1000mistakes.com was one of 3 which neither was accused of bringing wrong facts, nor of being a hate page.
4. Comment 141 (to verse 6/149) in “The Message of the Quran” (see point 5) explains (translated from Swedish) about Allah's claimed omniscience vs. man's claimed free will:
“With other words: The real connection between Allah’s knowledge about the future (and consequently about the unavoidable in what is to happen in the future*) on one side and man’s relatively (!!*) free will on the other – two statements that seems to contradict each other – lies outside what is possible for humans to understand, but as both statement are made from Allah (in the Quran*) both must be true”. Unbelievable. Blind belief is the only correct and intelligent way of life, even in the face of the utterly impossible!!
5. And an afterthought: In the book “The Message of the Quran”, certified by Al-Azhar Al-Sharif Islamic Research Academy in Cairo (one of the 2-3 top universities in the Muslim world on such subjects) in a letter dated 27. Dec. 1998, it is admitted rather reluctantly that there are no proofs for Allah, and that it is not possible to prove him. An additonal point here is that if there is no proof for Allah and impossible to prove him, automatically there also is no proof for, and impossible to prove Muhammad's claimed connection to a god. And if there is no Allah and/or no connection between Muhammad and a god, what then is Islam?
6. Further: All the mistakes, contradictions, etc. in that book prove 100% that the Quran is not made by an omniscient god - no god makes such and so many mistakes, etc. If then Islam is a made up religion, what then about all the Muslims who have been prohibitted from looking for a real religion (if such one exists)? And where will they in case wake up after living and practising such an inhuman war religion like Islam is according to the Quran (and to Hadiths), if there is a second life somewhere? - Hell or Paradise?
7. NB and PS: No matter how sure you are about something, if it is not proved, it is not knowledge, only belief or strong belief, and can be wrong. Only what is proved or possible to prove is knowledge.
(As http://www.1000mistakes.com is blocked in many Muslim areas - which shows they are afraid of it and lack arguments (if they had real arguments for http://www.1000mistakes.com is wrong, blocking was unneccessary) - "cut and paste" whatever you want from it and send if you want to inform or to debate there. Remember to omit the name http://www.1000mistakes.com).
PS: If we are blocked centrally - f. ex. by spam (there is too much at times already from unfriendly sources) we will reopen with new address somewhere else, and announce the new address om f. ex. http://www.topix.com/forum/religion/islam. Also if your comments to us do not reach us, any comments posted on the thread "What is it with http://www.1000mistakes.com ?" (or make a page containing "1000 mistakes" in the title yourself if you want) on that forum will be read by us - it is a big international debate page.